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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The amygdala is a substructure of the limbic system and is involved in the control of emotional activities, including the mediation of defensive-aggressive behaviors and attachment of emotions to memories.
Anosognosia is most often caused by brain trauma that affects the right parietal lobe and involves a lack of awareness of one's symptoms on the left side of the body.
Antocholinergic side effects
Anticholinergic side effects are caused by several drugs including the antipsychotics and tricyclic antidepressants. They include dry mouth, blurred vision, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), urinary retention, constipation, memory impairment, and confusion.
Aphasia refers to impairments in the production and/or comprehension of language.
Broca's Aphasia
Broca's aphasia is produced by damage to Broca's area. It involves difficulty in producing written or spoken language with little or no trouble in understanding language.
Wernike's Aphasia
Wernike's Aphasia is caused by damage to Wernike's area. It is characterized by an inability to comprehend written or spoken language along with the production of rapid, seemingly effortless speech that is lacking in content and may include anomia and paraphasia.
Conduction Aphasia
Conduction Aphasia is produced by damage to the arcuate fasciculus. It does not significantly afffect language comprehension but does result in anomia and an inability to repeat words or simple phrases.
Apraxia is the inability to perform voluntary movements, especially those involving a sequence of movements. It is often the result of parietal lobe damage.
Ataxia refers to a lack of coordination while performing voluntary movements. It often involves clumsiness and loss of balance. Ataxia is usually due to damage to the cerebellum (e.g., as the result of alcohol consumption).
Atypical Antipsychotics
The atypical (newer) antipsychotic drugs (e.g., clozapine) affect receptors for several neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate. These drugs are effective for both positive and negative symptoms of Schizophrenia and are less likely to produce tardive dyskinesia than the traditional antipsychotics.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
The ANS is a division of the peripheral nervous system and is involved in the control of visceral functions (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion, and sweating). It consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.
Sympathetic Branch of the ANS
The sympathetic branch is involved in the mediation of flight or fight (emergency) reactions. Activation of the sympathetic branch increases heart rate, pupil dilation, increased blood sugar, and inhibition of the digestive processes.
Parasympathetic Branch of the ANS
The parasympathetic branch is involved in the conservation of energy and relaxation; activation is associated with slowing of heart rate, lowered blood pressure, contraction of pupils, reduction of sweat gland output, and increased activity of the digestive system.
Basal Ganglia
The basal ganglia are subcortical structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra) that are involved in planning, organizing, and coordinating voluntary movements. Damage to the basal ganglia is associated with Huntington's disease and Parkinson's Disease.
Beta Blockers
Beta blockers (e.g., propranolol) block or diminish the cardiovascular excitatory response to the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. They are used to treat cardiovascular disorders, glaucoma, and migraine headache and are also useful for reducing the physical symptoms of anxiety.
Catecholamine Hypothesis
According to the catecholamine hypothesis, depression is caused by lower than normal levels of norepinephrine.
The cerebellum is a large structure on the dorsal aspect of the hindbrain. It is involved in the extrapyramidal control of motor activities (e.g., coordination, balance, posture); damage can result in ataxia.
Cerebral stroke
A cerebral stroke refers to brain damage that occurs when a blood clot or other obstruction or hemorrhage disrupts the flow of blood to the brain. Common symptoms include contralateral hemiplegia, hemianesthesia involving the face, arm, and leg, and contralateral visual field loss.
Cerebral Ventricles
The ventricles are the four cavities of the brain that contain cerbrospinal fluid. Blockage of the ventricles and a resulting build-up of fluid can cause hydrocephalus.
Closed-head injury
A closed-head injury involves cerebral trauma caused by blow to the head. It is often followed by a period of loss of consciousness (coma) followed by posttraumatic (anteriograde) amnesia. It may also involve retrograde amnesia and other symptoms, depending on the nature and severity of the injury.
Contralateral Representation
For most sensory and motor functions, the cortex exhibits contralateral representation, which means that the left hemisphere controls the functions of the right side of the body and vice-versa. The right and left hemisphere are connected by several bundles of fibers, the largest of which is the corpus callosum. If the corpus callosum is severed, the two hemispheres operate essentially as separate, independent brains.
Dopamine Hypothesis
According to the dopamine hypothesis, Schizophrenia is due to overactivity or oversensitivity at dopamine receptors.
Emotion (Areas of the Brain)
Areas of the brain that have been implicated in the regulation of emotion include the amygdala (which plays a role in the perception and expression of anger, fear, sadness, happiness, and other emotions and attaches emotion to memories); the hypothalamus (which is involved in the translation of emotions into physical responses); and the cerebral cortex. With the regard to the latter, the left hemisphere governs happiness and other positive emotions, while the right hemisphere mediates sadness, fear, and other negative emotions.
Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe contains the primary motor, premotor, and prefrontal areas. It is involved in initiative, planning ability, abstract thinking, and other executive functions; personality and mood; and motor functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex produces personality changes and deficits in higher-level cognitive abilitites.
Gate Control Theory
According to gate-control theory, there are mechanisms in the spinal cord that mediate (block) the perception of pain.
General Adaptation Syndrome
According to Selye, the human response to stress is mediated by adrenal-pituitary secretions (e.g., cortisol) and involves three stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion. The model predicts that prolonged stress can result in illness or death.
Hemispheric Specialization
Although the left and right hemispheres are both involved to some degree in most functions, they tend to specialize. The left (dominant) hemisphere dominates in verbal activities (spontaneous speaking and writing, word recognition, memory for words and numbers); analytic, logical thought, and positive emotional states. The right (non-dominant) hemisphere dominates in visual-spatial activities such as facial recognition, spatial interpretation and memory for shapes and in negative emotions. The specialization of the two hemispheres was initially studied in split-brain patients, whose corpus callosums had been severed to control severe epilepsy.
The hippocampus is a limbic system structure that is important for spatial and explicit memory and the consolidation of declarative memories.
Huntington's Disease
Huntingtom's disease is an inherited degerative disease that is transmitted by a single dominant gene and involves emotional, cognitive, and motor symptoms. Early symptoms are often depression, apathy, anxiety, antisocial tendencies, forgetfulness, fidgeting, and clumsiness. later, athetosis and chorea and more severe cognitive symptoms develop. It is believed to be due to a loss of GABA-secreting neurons and glutamate excitotoxicity in the basal ganglia, especially in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus.
There are two types of hypertension. Primary (essential) hypertension is diagnosed when high blood pressure is not due to a knownphysiological cause, while secondary hypertension is diagnosed when elevated blood pressure is related to a known disease. Primary hypertension accounts for about 85 to 90% of all cases of high blood pressure; untreated, it can lead to cardiovascular disease, and it is a major cause of heart failure, kidney failure, and stroke.