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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anterior
Front (nose end)
Posterior
Back
Dorsal
Top
Ventral
Bottom
Lateral
Outside
Medial
In the middle
Horizontal slice
Lying flat
Anterior slice
Cutting along hemispheres
Coronal slice
Cutting vertically from ear to ear
left hemisphere functions
(4)
Language
Math
Logical thinking
Local details
right hemisphere functions
(5)
Spacial skills
Face recognition
Visual imagery
Music
Global picture
substantia nigra
Movement
Parkinson's disease
Should be black
periaqueductal grey
Donut
Opiates
Pain relief
ventral tegmental area
Addiction
Dopamine
Important for reinforcement learning
reticular formation
Arousal and wakefulness
Sleep
Hippocampus
Forms new memories
Grey matter
Part of temporal lobe
Amygdala
Emotion
Means "almond"
Next to hippocampus
Basal ganglia
Medial
Grey matter
Movement and skill learning
Gets input from substantia nigra
1.Caudate
2.Putamen
3.Globus pallidus
4.Subthalamus
5.Substantia nigra
Hypothalamus
"Under" thalamus
Autonomic nervous system
4 F's
-feeding
-fighting
-fleeing
-f*&#ing
Controls "drives"
Pituitary gland
"Master gland"
Regulates body's hormones
creates hormones that go to other gjands and tell them what to do
Gets info from hypothalamus
Frontal lobe
Prefrontal area
Motor area
Premotor area
Executive functioning
Primary Motor Cortex
Speech output
Temporal Lobe
Visual object recognition
Primary Auditory & Association Cortex
-speech (Wernicke's Area)
-Music/Sounds
Learning & memory
Fusiform Gyrus
-face recognition
Occipital lobe
Vision
Cortical blindness
-"blindsight"
Primary Visual Cortex
Parietal Lobe
Touch
Primary Somatosensory & Association Cortex
Spatial Skills
Cerebellum
Coordinated movement, balance
Integrating sensory info
Lots of GABA receptors
-very affected by alcohol
Medulla
Cranial nerves
Heart beat
Breathing
Corpus callosum
Bundle of axons
Connects hemispheres
Thalamus
"Relay station"
Gets info from sensory system, processes it, and sends it to other parts of brain
All senses except smell
Saltatory conduction
Action potential
Charge jumps from node to node via myelinated axons
Pons
Holds part of reticular formation
Cranial nerves
Relay station for info before being sent around cortex
CT scan
X-ray of brain
MRI scan
Clear picture of detailed part of brain
EEGs & ERPs
Electrical activity/brain waves
SPECT & PET
Radioactive tracers ingested
fMRI
Movie of brain
Central Nervous System
Brain
Spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral nerves
Neuron
Cell in nervous system
Nerve
Bundle of axons in PNS
Tract
Bundle of axons in CNS
Ganglion
Group of cell bodies in PNS
Nucleus
Group of cell bodies in CNS
Glial cells
Support cells
Astrocytes
Microglia
Oligodendrocytes
Schwann cells
Astrocytes
Mom of NS
Structure
Clean up
Food and chemical production
Blood brain barrier
Microglia
Cleans up dead neurons
Immune response
Excess means something might be wrong
Oligodendrocytes
Form myelin in CNS
Multiple axons per oligodendrocyte
Schwann cells
Form myelin in PNS
One axon per Schwann cell
Neurons
Sensory
Motor
Interneurons
Sensory neurons
Receives input from sensory organs and sends to CNS
Motor neurons
Sends output from CNS to muscles and glands
Interneurons
Sends info between neurons within the CNS
Efferent
Exit
Message that is leaving/being sent
Afferent
Approach
Message that is approaching/being received
Action Potential Basics
Ions moving in and out of cells
Threshold for firing
All or none
Refractory period
Only goes one direction
Takes energy to return to rest
Resting potential
Pump maintains distribution of ions
Depolarization
Change in charge that makes the inside less negative
Action Potential Mechanism
Inside is negative at rest
Na rushes in
K rushes out
Refractory period
Energy required to return to resting state
Synaptic Transmission
(5 steps)
1. Synthesis
2. Storage
3. Release
4. Receptor interaction
5. Termination
Vesicle
Package for neurotransmitters
Receptors
Proteins embedded in membrane
Lock and key fit
Ionotropic and Metabotropic
Ionotropic receptors
Neurotransmitter lets ions flow through
Sends message quickly
Very specific
Short duration
Metabotropic
Not an ion channel
Neurotransmitter binds to receptor, then tells another channel to open
Can send message to multiple ion channels
Slower
Longer duration
Excitatory
Tells next cell to go
1. Na+ or Ca2+ ions enter cell
2. Causes depolarization (EPSP)
3. Causes action potential
Inhibitory
Tells next cell to stop
1. Lets K+ out or Cl- in
2. Causes hyperpolarization (IPSP)
3. Stops/prevents action potential
Neural integration
Sum of excitation and inhibition
Determines whether neuron will fire
NMDA Glutamate receptor
If glutamate binds, channel is blocked by Magnesium, so charge has to be right to move Mg
Na+ and Ca2+ can flow through
Glutamate is excitatory
Important for learning
Drug onset rates
(Fastest to slowest)
1. Intravenous
2. Smoked
3. Intranasal
4. Oral
Blood Brain Barrier
Keeps toxins out of brain
Passive diffusion
Active transport
Passive diffusion
Molecules enter BBB directly
Fatty molecules
Small molecules
-alcohol, oxygen, carbon dioxide
Active transport
Precurser molecules enter BBB
Glucose
L-DOPA
-precurser to dopamine
-used to treat Parkinson's
Choline
What can't get past the BBB?
Large molecules
Charged molecules
Dopamine
Agonists
Increases neurotransmission
Direct
-Binds to same spot as neurotransmitter
Indirect
-Increases neurotransmission another way
Antagonists
Decreases neurotransmission
Produces opposite effect
Caffeine blocks sleepy feeling
Direct
-Prevents neurotransmitter from binding by blocking keyhole
Indirect (noncompetitive)
-Prevents neurotransmission in a different way, like a second lock
PCP
Blocks glutamate
Antagonist
Glutamate may be important for schizophrenia
Alcohol
GABA indirect agonist
-GABA is inhibitory, involved in sleepiness
NMDA glutamate indirect antagonist
-important in forming memories
Stimulants
Dopamine indirect agonist
-Cocaine blocks reuptake
-Amphetamines enhance release (reverse reuptake pump)
Opiates
Direct agonist for endorphins
Marijuana
CB1 direct agonist
Meninges
Membranes that cover/protect brain and spinal cord
Three layers:
1. Dura mater
2. Arachnoid membrane
(subarachnoid space with CSF)
(arachnoid trabeculae)
3. Pia mater
(brain surface)
Somatic Nervous System
Part of PNS
Voluntary sensory and motor
Cranial nerves
Spinal nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of PNS
Involuntary
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Cranial Nerves
12 nerve pairs at the base of the brain control:
-Face and neck muscles
-Taste, tongue movement
-Vision, eye movements
-Hearing, balance
-Internal organs
Spinal Nerves
Come from spine
Cauda equina
-Group of nerves that come out of the bottom of the spinal cord
Each part of the spine controls part of the body
Spinal Cord
Spinal Nerves
Meninges
Vertebra
Discs (help cushion)
Afferent sensory fibers
Efferent motor fibers
Grey matter (in middle)
White matter (on outside)
Afferent sensory fibers
Spinal cord
Come in through back (dorsal)
Cell bodies are just outside spinal cord and send axons in
Efferent motor fibers
Spinal cord
Go out through front (ventral)
Cell bodies are in spinal cord and send axons out into body
Sympathetic Nervous System
Nerves in middle of spinal cord
-Thoracic and lumbar
Sympathetic chain
-Synapse group near base of spinal cord
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Nerves come out of top and bottom of spinal cord (cranial and sacral)
Synapses with nerve cells that go close to organs
Gyrus
Hill in the brain
Sulcus
Valley in the brain
Ventricles
Holes in brain
Makes Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
White matter
Myelin
Around middle of brain
Grey matter
Cell bodies
Around edges of brain
Cerebral cortex
Outer grey matter
Executive Functioning
(Prefrontal area)
Planning
Judgment and decision making
Flexible thinking and problem solving
Impulse control
Broca's Area
Left hemisphere
Frontal lobe
Speech output
Wernicke's Area
Left hemisphere
Temporal lobe
language comprehension
Primary Motor Area
Single gyrus
Involved in controlling movement
Somatosensory Cortex is next to it in the Parietal lobe
Forebrain
Cerebral cortex
Basal ganglia
Limbic system
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Midbrain
Tectum
Tegmentum
Hindbrain
Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla
Brain Stem
Includes part of midbrain and part of hindbrain
Diencephalon
Responsible for basic functioning
Tectum
Superior colliculus (vision)
Inferior colliculus (hearing)
Separate from usual seeing/hearing pathways
Non-detailed vision
Tegmentum
Substantia nigra
Periaqueductal grey matter
Ventral tegmental area
Reticular formation
Limbic System
Involved in emotion and memory
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Cingulate gyrus
Fornix
Mamillary bodies