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44 Cards in this Set

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bodily-fluid theory
the amounts of four fluids present in the body determined personality.
examples of physiological systems
nervous system, cardiac system, musculoskeletal system
Sheldon's physiological approach to personality
body type determined personality.
Ectomorph (skinny): Thoughtful, introverted
Mesomorph (muscular): Assertive, bold
Endomorph (fat): Sociable, fun-loving
results of Sheldon's approach
later research Failed to replicate. did not use blind ratings
Some work suggesting relationship between body type and job choice
electrodes
the most common physiological measures in personality research.
sensors placed on the surface of a participant's skin
3 psychological measures of electrodoes
electrodermal activity, cardiovascular measures, activity in the brain
what can Electrodermal activity measure
due to increased sweat with arousal, skin conductance of electricity increases. used to measure anxiety and neuroticism
Cardiovascular activity
Blood pressure, heart rate
Cardiac reactivity
greater than normal increase in blood pressure and heart rate when performing task
Type A personality traits
impatience, competitiveness, hostility
Brain activity
Brain spontaneously produces small amounts of electrical activity that can be measured by electrodes on scalp —electroencephalograph (EEG)
Evoked potential technique
uses EEG, but the participant is given a stimulus and the researcher assess specific brain response to stimulus
fMRI
use to show which portion of the brain is active while the person is performing a particular task
Extraversion-Introversion can be measure with what
Measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)
High extraversion
Talkative, outgoing, likes meeting new people and going to new places, active, bored easily, hates routine
Low extraversion (introversion)
Quiet, withdrawn, prefers being alone or with a few friends to large crowds, prefers routines, prefers familiar to unexpected
Eysenck’s theory
Introverts have a higher level of activity in the brain’s ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)than extraverts
Eysenck’s theory about ARAS
Research indicates that introverts and extraverts are NOT at different resting levels, but introverts ARE more reactive to moderate levels of stimulation than extraverts
This work led Eysenck to revise his theory—the difference between introverts and extraverts lies in arousability, not in baseline arousal
Eysenck’s theory on performance
Introverts and extraverts perform task best under their chosen stimulation level, poor when performing under a stimulation level chosen by other group
Jeffrey Gray's 2 hypothesized biological systems in the brain
Behavioral Activation System (BAS)
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
Behavioral Activation System (BAS)
Responsive to incentives (cues to reward) and regulates approach behavior
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
Responsive to cues to punishment, frustration, uncertainty, and motivates ceasing, inhibiting, or avoidance behavior
Active BIS vs. Active BAS
Active BIS produces anxiety
Active BAS produces impulsivity
According to Gray, impulsive people do not learn well from what
punishment because of weak BIS; learn better from reward—supported by research
Integration with Eysenck’s model;
Impulsive =
Anxious =
Impulsive = high extraversion, moderate neuroticism;
Anxious = moderate introversion, high neuroticism
Sensation seeking
Tendency to seek out thrilling, exciting activities, take risks, avoid boredom
Sensory Deprivation
Persons in sensory deprived environments appear motivated to acquire ANY sensory input, even if ordinarily such input would be perceived as boring
Hebb's Theory of optimal level of arousal
people are motivated to reach an optimal level of arousal
Zuckerman's Reasearch
High sensation seekers are less tolerant of sensory deprivation; require much stimulation to get to optimal level of arousal
Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale
Moderate positive correlation between extraversion and sensation seeking
Physiological basis for sensation seeking
Neurotransmitters
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
Neurotransmitters
chemicals in nerve cells are responsible for the transmission of nerve impulse from one cell to another
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
enzyme that maintains a proper level of neurotransmitters
Relation between Neurotransmitters and MAO
Too little MAO = too much neurotransmitter; too much MAO = too little neurotransmitter
Levels of MAO for high sensation seekers
High sensation seekers have low levels of MAO, producing a need for stimulation to reach the optimal level of arousal
Dopamine
Associated with pleasure
Serotonin
Associated with depression and other mood disorders
Norepinepherine
Associated with fight or flight response
Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Model: Novelty seeking, Harm avoidance, Reward dependence
Novelty seeking—low levels of dopamine
Harm avoidance—low levels of serotonin
Reward dependence—low levels of norephinepherine
Being a “morning-type” or “evening-type” is dut to what
Due to differences in underlying biological rhythms
when do individuals with shorter circadian rhythms hit their peaks
hit peak body temperature and alertness earlier in day, get sleepy earlier, than individuals with longer rhythm
Individuals with shorter rhythm _____; individuals with longer rhythms _______
Individuals with shorter rhythm tend to be morning persons; individuals with longer rhythms tend to be evening persons
Left frontal hemisphere is more active than the right when a person is experiencing _____; right is more active than left with ______
Left frontal hemisphere is more active than the right when a person is experiencing pleasant emotions; right is more active than left with unpleasant emotions
Use of EEG
can measure brain waves, such as alpha wave—an inverse indicator of brain activity