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5 Cards in this Set

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The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is relatively impermeable to water even under conditions of maximal antidiuresis. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. The proximal tubule and descending limb of the loop of Henle are highly permeable to water under normal conditions as well as during antidiuresis. Water permeability of the late distal and collecting tubules increases markedly during antidiuresis owing to the effects of increased levels of ADH.
List 4 factors that shift potassium into cells(decrease extracellular potassium).
1. insulin
2. aldosterone
3. B adrenergic stimulation
4. alkalosis
List 7 factors that shift K+ out of cells(increase extracellular K+).
1. insulin deficiency(diabetes mellitus)
2. aldosterone deficiency(Addisons disease)
3. B adrenergic blockade
4. acidosis
5. cell lysis
6. strenuous exercise
7. increased ECF osmolarity
What is the diluting segment of the loop of Henle?
Fluid entering the early distal tubule is almost always hypotonic because sodium and other ions are actively transported out of the thick ascending loop of Henle, whereas this portion of the nephron is virtually impermeable to water. It is for this reason the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the early part of the distal tubule are often called the diluting segment.
In diabetes mellitus, the high level of blood glucose increases the filtered load of glucose, which exceeds the transport maximum for glucose, resulting in an osmotic diuresis, due to unreabsorbed glucose in the renal tubules acting as an osmotic diuretic. TRUE/FALSE