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61 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 main processes fo digestion and where do they happen?
1) Digestion - mainly in small intestines but starts in stomach
2) Absorption - small intestine
3) Motility - throughout
4) Secretion - throughout
What are the two types of Phasic motility
1) Parastalsis - in esophagus
2) Segmentation in stomach, and intestines
What is the purpose of segmentation
It squishes the food bolus back and forth over villi to increase surface contact and absorption
What is the gross anatomy of the digestive tract
Mouth Esophagus
stomach small intestine
large intesting
Name the layers of the walls of the digestive system
1)Serosa - outer- connective tissue
2)Muscularis - smooth muscle layer for parastalsis and segmentation
3)SubMucosa - veins, arteries blood vessels and lymph, immune system
4)Mucosa - mucous, secretion occurs and abosrpion happens
What is GALT
Gutt assosciated Lymphatic Tissue - the largest proportion of the immune tissues
What is secreted from the gastric glands in the stomace
HCL
Glycogenesis
Making glycogen- happens in the liver
Glycogen
stored glucose in liver and muscles
Glycogenolysis
Breaking up glycogen into glucose
Gluconeogenesis
making glucose from amino acids or fats
Lipogenesis
making fats from glucose or free fatty acids
What are the three pools stored in the plasma
Amino acids
glucose
fatty acids
What is the anabolic state
building - fed state - absorptive
What is the catabolic state
breaking down - digestive - fasted state
Insulin
lowers blood glucose levels- released from pancreas when blood glucose is high in fed state
Glucagon
raises blood glucose levels in resting state
Type 1 Diabetes
autoimmune disorder - Juvenile onset - beta cells destroyed(part of the pancreas) No insulin made so you can't get glucose into the cells
Type 2 Diabetes
defective insulin receptor(tyrosine Kinase)
Thermoregulation -
Radiation - heat coming out of body like sun
Conduction - heat loss through contact
Convection - warm air traveling up the body
Evaporation - loss of water through breathing and sweat
Shivering thermo genesis - to get warm
How do you regulate body temp in Hypothermia
Too cold so you must:
Exercise,
shiver,
put layers on
blood vessels contract in the extremities
How do you regulate body temp in Hyperthermia
Too warm so you:
Sweat
Inactivity
fan yourself
dilate the veins and arteries to get blood to surface to help cool
What are Steroid hormones made from
Cholesterol
Why do you need the Hypothalamus, pituitary, fill in the blank system
For negative feedback which is important for homeostatic balances
Corisol
The stress hormone comes from the adrenal gland.
An immunosuppressant,
raises glucose levels and
has a permissive effect on glucagon so
your system has more energy in times of stress
What causes a Goiter
Too much T3 and T4
Not enough iodine
What is Hypothyroidism
Not enough iodine, body cannot synthesize T3 and T4 which increases TSH which builds thyroid gland
what is Hyperthyroidism
Autoimmune disorder, plenty of iodine, tying to make more
What is the function of the thyroid hormone
Increases metabolism
increases O consumption
generates more heat -thermogenic
makes more ATP
stimulate Cellular respiration/ provides substrates for oxidative metabolism
What are the symptoms fo Hyperthyroidism
Hot
weight issues
irritable
not sleeping
muscle wasting
What are the symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Cold
tired
not making enough ATP
Dwarfism
Too little Growth hormone before puberty
Gigantism
Too much growth hormone before puberty
Acromegaly
Too much growth hormone after puberty
What hormones are used during exercise
Cortisol
Glucagon
epinephrine
Not insulin
Aerobic respiration
most efficient in making ATP
Anaerobic respiration
lactic acid buildup and does not produce as much ATP
What happens to your muscles when you train a lot
increase muscle memory and tissue
Turns muscle in to intermediate fast twitch so they act more like slow twithc
more mitochondria
more myoglobin for O2 storage
get more glucose and fat storage
increases glut 4
Brain uses what for energy
Glucose and Ketones
What distiguishes male or female
Y Chromosome
Male is XY
Female is XX
What decides what sex the biopotential tissues will be come
Presence of the SRY gene
If you have SRY they become male
What are the gonads in each sex
Male - testes
Female - ovaries
What are the Gamites in both sexes
Male - sperm
Female - eggs
What does the Mullerian Duct develop into
Fallopian tubes or ovaduct
What does the Wolffian duct develop into
Vas deferens
How is reproduction regulated
Hypothalamus releases -GNRH Gonadatropin releasing hormone,
Anterior Pituitary releases FSH and LH Folicle stimulating hormone and Lutenizing hormones
testes and ovary are controled by release of testosterone and estrogen
How is stress regulated
hypothalamus releases CRH
Anterior Pituitary releases ACTH(adrenocorticotrophic homone)
Adrenal gland releases cortisol
How is Growth regulated
Hypothalamus releases GHRH
Anterior Pituitary releases HGH
Liver responds and bone and muscle effected
How is the tyroid regulated
Hypothalamus releases TRH(tyrosine release hormone)
Anterior Pituitary releases TSH(thyroid stimulating horomone
Thyroid releases T3 and T4 are released(tyrosine and # or iodine)
What type of hormones come from the hypothalamus
Trophic hormones - control the release or production of other hormones
What are the effects of Cortisol on the body
permissive effect on glucagon - allows full effect
Memory, learning and mood
Gluconeogenesis - makes glucose out of AA and fats
skeletal muscle breakedown
Lipolysis- breaks down fat
Negative Calicium balance
Immune depression
circadian rhythms - sleep wake cycles
What are circadian rhythms
sleep-wake cycle
Track the male gamete through the system
Semineferous tubule in testes
epidymis
vas deferens
seminal vesicle
prostate
bulbouretheral gland
What does the seminal vessicle release
bulk of the seminal fluid
nutrients
prosaglandins - uterine contractions
clotting enzymes
What are the structures of the female reproductive organs
ovary
Fimbriae -fingerlike projections
fallopian tube or ovaduct
cervix/ endometrium
vagina
Describe the menstral cycle
Folicular phase - egg matures
ovulation - egg released
Luteal phase - crous luteum makes progesteone ot increase endometrial layer to prep for pregnancy
pregnancy or menses
Methods of birth control
absinance
barriers-condom, female condom, diaphragm,cervical cap
Surgery
chemical - patches, shot, pill,
IUD
What happens to men during puberty
testes matures and can produce sperm
grow body hair
increase muscle mass
voice changes
Y shaped body
hormones
What happens to women during puberty
Menses occures
eggs mature
body hair
breasts develop
pear shaped body
increased body fat for pregnancy
hormones
What happens during menopause
No more eggs
lose menses
hormone imbalance
hot flashes
irritability
increase chance of osteoporosis
What happens during andropause
muscle mass wasting
decrease sex drive/hormones
Erectile dysfunction
decrease in sperm count