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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Mixing mvmts of small intestine caused by ______
Distention
Colon-to-small intestine backflow prevented by ________
ileocecal valve
_________ is the primary mode of small intestine motility
Segmentation
Pathological inhibition of motility is called _________
adynamic (paralytic) ileus
Propulsive Peristalsis in small intestine includes “Contractile ring + Receptive relaxation” this is called
Myenteric/Peristaltic reflex
Secrete (basic) mucus into small intestine, stimulated by tactile or irritating stimuli, vagal activation, GI hormones
Brunner’s glands in small intestine
secrete protective, lubricating mucus
Goblet cells in Crypts of Lieberkuhn
secrete and
reabsorb H20 and electrolytes and reabsorb digestion products
Enterocytes in the Crypts of Lieberkuhn
H20 absorption
occurs by _______ through intestinal membrane
diffusion
Sodium undergoes _______ through intestinal membrane
active transport
Dehydration increases (2)
1)aldosterone secretion
2)epithelial cell sodium absorption
Elevated Na absorption increases _____
Cl, H20 absorption
Cholera, other bacteria causing diarrhea increase ___ & ___secretion
Na, H20
Ca actively absorbed in proportion to _____
need
Ca absorbion is controlled by ______ & ________
parathyroid hormone
vitamin D
Iron, K, Mg, phosphate are ______ absorbed
actively
Carbohydrates are absorbed in the form of ______
monosaccharides (mostly glucose)
Glucose, galactose co-transported with ______ into enterocytes by SGLT-1 carrier
sodium
Fructose not co-transported, but diffuses using ____ carrier
Glut-5
Proteins are mostly absorbed as dipeptides, tripeptides, amino acids into epithelial cells using _______ co-transport mechanism
sodium
Must be converted to amino acids and small peptides

GI HCI activates inactive protease (pepsin) precursors (pepsinogens), while the pancreas releases several proteases

Within GI lumen, both families of proteases hydrolyze it to peptides

Brush border enzymes (enterokinase and aminopeptidases) further hydrolyze peptides to amino acids and small peptides

Na dependent transporters carry amino acids and small peptides into enterocytes, where cytoplasmic peptidases finish hydrolyzing peptides into amino acids, which then pass into the bloodstream
digestion of protien in the small intestine
Passive diffusion of monoglycerides and fatty acids into enterocytes

Lipid soluble

Recombined to form triglycerides, then some -> glycerol , fatty acids

Triglycerides within Golgi apparatus assemble into globules (cholesterol + phospholipids); then undergo exocytosis excretion into lymph as CHYLOMICRONS; eventually emptied into neck veins
Digestion of fats
FAT is absorbed by _______ diffusion
passive
FAT absorption involves intracellular packaging into __________
chylomicrons
chylomicrons extruded from the mucosal cell via ________
exocytosis
fat enters into the lymphatic system via the central ______ of the villus
lacteal
SMALL INTESTINE ABSORPTION: VITAMINS & MINERALS
water-soluble vitamins
fat-soluble vitamins
vitamin B12
IRON
CALCIUM