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209 Cards in this Set

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Protein components of muscle
Actin (thin) and myosin (thick)
Striated pattern fromed by the muscle filaments
Are called sarcomeres
Z line
Where ends of actin meet – separates sarcomeres
A band
Dark bands – myosin overlapping actin
H zone
Myosin only
I band
Light bands – actin only
Regulatory proteins bound to actin
Troponin and tropomyocin
In relaxed state…troponin holds tropomyosin
In position to block myocin binding to actin
When Ca++ levels increase…Ca++ binds to troponin
Changes the complex to allow myocin to bind to actin
Smooth muscle contains
Calmodulin
Ca++ activates calmodulin which then
Phosphorylates myocin – allows myosin to bind actin
Ca uptake stimulates the release of
Ach into the neuromuscular juction
Ach causes the membranes to leak Na+ causing
Depolarization and opening of more Na+ and K+ channels
The opening of the Na+ and K+ channels causes an
Action potential to arise
The action potential (AP)
Propagates in both directions along the sarcolemma
The AP opens Ca++ channels on the
sarcoplasmic reticulum - increases Ca++ in the sacroplasm
Ca++ diffuses into the sarcomeres and binds to
Troponin molecules
Myosin has
ATP-ase activity
When myosin attaches to actin it releases
ADP + Pi
After the contraction
ATP binds to myosin to dissociate the filaments
Rigor mortis occurs when
ATP isn’t available and myosin stays bound to actin (~24 hr)
The sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle is
SER that removes Ca++ from the cytosol during relaxation
NK cells have receptors for
The Fc portion of antibodies that have bound to antigen
LDLs are used to make
triglycerides
Excitatory neurotransmitters
ACh and catecholamines
Inhibitory neurotransmitters
Glycine and GABA
Resting membrane potential is
– 65-85 mV…more Na+ outside the cell
Tidal volume TV
Volume of air that moves in and out during normal breathing
Inspiratory reserve IRV
Extra volume inspired above the tidal volume
Expiratory reserve ERV
Extra volume expired by use of active contraction
Vital capacity
Sume of TV, IRV, and ERV
Residual volume
The amount of air that remains after maximum expiration
Anatomical dead space
Where no air exchange takes place
The primary unit of the lungs is the
Alveoli – where actual gas exchange takes place
O2 moves across alveoli walls by
Diffusion, into capillary walls to the blood
O2 concentration is greatest in the
Alveoli
CO2 concentration is greatest in the
Blood
CO2 stimulates the breathing center in the
Medulla – hypoxia accelerates breathing
CO2 reacts with H2O to form
Bicarbonate ions
The control center for breathing is the
Medulla oblongata
Hering-brever reflexes occur when the lungs expand so
much that baroreceptors send inhibitory signals to the brain
Maintaining rhythmicity of respiration is up to the
Pneumotaxic center in the upper pons
The cerebral cortex controls the
Voluntary aspects of breathing
The pyloric sphincter is between the
Stomach and small intestine
The Duodenum of the small intestine
Receives chyme from the pyloric end of the stomach
Most digestion occurs in the
Duodenum
Absorption of digested food occurs in the
Jejunum and the ileum of the small intestine
Segmentation contraction of small intestine
Mixing movement – rhythmic contration
Peristalsis
Propulsive movement
Chief (peptic) (zygomatic) cells of the stomach secrete
Pepsinogen (precursor to pepsin)
Parietal (oxyntic) cells secrete
HCl – which activates pepsinogen to pepsin
Parietal cells also secrete
Intrinsic factor which is necessary for B12 absorption
Mucous cells secrete
A protective, alkaline mucus – protects walls from HCl
G cells are epithelial endocrine cells (anteroendocrine cells ) that secrete
Gastrin (a hormone) inhibits HCl secretion from parietal cells
Other epithelial endocrine cells secrete somatostatin
Which inhibits secretion from parietal, chief and G cells
Pancreatic enzymes require a
Neutral pH environment to function
The hormone CCK from the intestinal mucosa
Causes the gall bladder to contract
Isometric contraction – muscle length stays the same
Energy released at heat – produces tension in the muscle
Isotonic contraction – tension stays the same
Muscle shortens to move a load – work is done
Golgi tendon organ
Sense the degree of stretch
Protein concentrations in the body
Cells 4X > plasma > interstitial fluid
Na+ is actively transported out of the
Proximal convoluted tubule (Cl- passively follows)
Water follows tha Na+ and the Cl- resulting in
65% of the water being reabsorbed in the PCT
In the descending loop of Henle
H2O and salt passively leave the tubule
In the ascending loop of Henle
Cl- and Na+ are actively pumped out of the tubule
The ascending loop of Henle is
Impermeable to water (tubule fluid is more dilute)
The distal convoluted tubule is also
Impermeable to water
The collecting tubule is
Permeable to water but NOT to salt
Permeability of the collecting duct is controlled by
ADH – released in response to increased solute conc.
ADH comes from the
Posterior pituitary – causes reabsorption of water
Aldosterone …
Promotes Na+ reabsorption and K+ excretion b
The actions of aldosterone
Increase blood volume and pressure
Bicarbonate is converted to
Carbonic acid to allow it to pass the renal tubule wall
Cardiac cycle is initiated by
Impulse from the SA (sinoatrial) node
Systolic period begins with the
First heart sound and ends with the second
Diastole begins with the
Second heart sound and ends with the first
The cardiac actions potential lasts
~ 300 msec (long)
The rate that the heart beats is determined by the
Rate of diastolic depolarization
Action potential goes from the atrium to the ventricle
Via the AV (atrioventricular) node
The actions potential continues through the
Bindle of His and the purkinje fibers
P wave
Depolarization of the atrial muscle
QRS complex
Depolarization of the ventricles (repolarization of atria)
CO (cardiac output) =
SV (stroke volume) X HR (heart rate)
Blood flow =
Arterial pressure / resistance
The greatest pressure drop occurs at the level of the
Arterioles (large resistance to flow at this point)
Pulsatile pressure in arteries =
Systolic pressure – diastolic pressure
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) = (related to blood flow)
1/3(pulse pressure) + diastolic pressure
Peripheral resistance is determined by
Blood viscosity and arterial diameter
Resting vascular tone is maintained by continuous
Sympathetic activity from vasomotor centers (in medulla)
Epinephrine binds to
Beta receptors on heart, skeletal muscle, liver
Angiotensin is a
Potent vasoconstrictor
Atrial natriuretic factor (peptide) is a
Potent vasodilator, also cause excretion of NaCl and H2O
Baroreceptors in the wall of the aorta are
Stretch receptors that respond to arterial pressure changes
Increased baroreceptor activity results in a decreased
Sympathetic activity, Decreases HR, contractility and CO
Average blood volume is
5 liters
Specific gravity of whole blood is
1.055 (3-4x as viscous as water)
Normal sed rate is
2-10 mm/hr
Normal adult hematocrit is
~40%
Hormones are secreted by
Ductless glands, directly into the vascular system
Anterior pituitary horm. (chemical hypothalamic control)
ACTH, TSH, GH, LH, FSH, prolactin
Posterior pituitary horm. (hormonal/neuronal control)
ADH (vasopressin), oxytocin
Pituitary gland produces
tropic hormones
ACTH – (adrenocorticotropic hormone) promotes
growth of adrenal cortex, of corticosteroid secretion
FSH – (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates
Graffian follicle growth and maturity, follicles to release estrogen and in males stimulates development of seminiferous tubules and maintains spermatogenesis
LH – Luteinizing hormone) works with FSH to
Stimulate complete maturation of the follicle, brings about ovulation and stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and estrogen, in males cause the secretion of testosterone from the testes
Adrenal cortex responds to ACTH from the anterior pituitary and produces…
Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) , glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone) , androgens (estrogen)
Adrenal medulla responds to the sympathetic nervous system and produces…
Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
TRH (from hypothalamus) stimulates release of
TSH from anterior pituitary
T3, T4 are released by thyroid follicles in response to
TSH, increase metabolic rate everywhere except the brain
T3 and T4 act by negative feedback on the
Anterior pituitary to decrease TSH release
Alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans secrete
Glucagon – increases glycogenolysis to increase BS
Beta cells of the Islets of Langehans secrete
Insulin – promotes glucose uptake into cells, fat anabolism
Increase in glucose causes an
Increase in insulin and a decrease in glucagons
Increase in amino acids causes an
Increase of both insulin and glucagon
Glucagons secretion is stimulated by
Sympathetic NS
Insulin secretion is stimulated by
Parasympathetic NS
Parathyroid hormone increases
Ca++ levels, increased bone absorption, intestinal absorption and renal absorption – decreases plasma phosphate
Vitamin D is activated in the
Kindey – same effects as PTH but also cause reabsorption of renal phosphate
Calcitonin comes from the thyroid gland and
Lowers blood Ca++ - decreases bone absorption
GH comes from the anterior pituitary and stimulates the
Growth of longitudinal bones , increase blood glucose
Somatostatin from hypothalamus
Inhibits GH release
In pregnancy high estrogen and progesterone inhibit
Gonadotropin releaseing hormone form the hypothalamus – results in no LH or FSH
Oxytocin stimulates the
Release of milk from breasts (contraction of myoepithelial)
Prolactin stimulates the
Synthesis of milk and the secretion of milk into the alveoli
Granulomatous inflammation is seen in
Syphilis, TB and leprosy – conditions with poorly digested irritants and T cell mediated immunity
Granulomas are collections of
modified macrophages with a rim of lymphocytes
Characteristic cell of granulomatous inflammation is
Epithelioid cell (modified macrophage) – also present are Langerhans and foreign body giant cells
Giant cells provide
Cell mediated immunity
Laminin and fibronectin are important in
Holding the cells to the basement membrane
DNA and RNA polymerases are dependent on
Zinc
The valve between the R atrium and R ventricle is the
Tricuspid valve (AV valve) – chordae tendineae attached
The valve between the L atrium and L ventricle is the
Left AV valve aka bicuspid aka mitral
The pace maker of the heart is the
SA node
The Ampulla of Vater is the place where the
Common bile duct and pancreatic duct come together
The Major duodenal papilla of Vater is where
The ducts enter the duodenum
Areas in the adrenal cortex glandZonula glomerulosaZonula fasciculateZonula reticularis
AldosteroneCortisol, cortison and corticosterone Testosterone, estrogen and progesterone
The sphincter of Oddi controls
Entry of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum
Merocrine secretion
Released through exocytosis (salivary and pancreatic)
Apocrine secretion
Loss of part of apical cytoplasm (sweat glands, lipid secretion in mammary glands, ceruminous glands)
Holocrine secretion
Destruction of gland (sebaceous glands, testes, ovaries, tarsal glands)
Loose (areolar) connective tissue
Can heal after injury or infection – supports the epithelial lining of the GI, respiratory and urinary tracts
The mineral component of bone is formed by
Inorganic salts and calcium hydroxyapatite
The cartilage at the epiphyseal growth plate is
Hyaline cartilage
The cartilage that makes intervertebral discs is
Fibrocartilage
The cartilage that makes the external ear is
Elastic cartilage
Epimysium
Covers muscle – continuous with tendon
Perimysium
Surrounds a muscle fascicle
Endomysium
Surrounds individual muscle fibers
White muscle fibers
Larger, faster, anaerobic, poor blood supply, low myoglobin
Red muscle fibers
Smaller, slower, aerobic, rich blood supply, rich in myoglobin
Cardiac m cells are similar to skeletal m except
Cardiac cells tend to be branched and are smaller
The T tubules in cardiac muscle are located
Only at the Z disc
Another name for the cell body of a neuron is
Perikaryon/ soma
Golgi type 1 neurons
Well developed dendritic tree and long axon
Golgi type 2 neurons
Short axon (interneruons)
One schwann cell can myelinate
Only one axon
One oligodendrocyte can myelinate
Many axons
Pacinian corpuscles detect
Deep tissue vibration and deep pressure – found in deeper layers of skin, mucous membranes, conjunctiva, cornea, heart and loose connective tissue
Meissner’s corpuscles detect
Localization of touch and texture, light touch – found in CT of palms and soles and tips of fingers and toes
Krause’s end bulbs
Detect pressure
Merkel’s discs are responsible for determining
Continuous touch – found near Meissner’s corpuscles
Ruffini corpuscles is a receptor for
Continuous touch and stretch of skin
Golgi tendon organs detect
Tension in muscle tendons during muscle contraction
Muscle spindles detect
Change in length of muscle fibers – stretch receptors
Three layers of arteriesTunica intimaTunica mediaTunica adventitia
Inner – endothelium + basement membraneMiddle – circular arrangement of CT and smooth muscleOuter – longitudinal arrangement of fibrous CT
In veins there is virtually no
Intima or media – tunica adventitia is the thickest
Lymph empties into the
Thoracic duct – left side of heart, drains most of bodyRight lymphatic duct – drains upper right section of body
Blood from the hepatic portal vein is rich in
Amino acids, simple sugars and other digestion products
The liver has a
Dual blood supply (venous and arterial)
Epithelial derivatives are impeded in the dermis
Hair follicles, nails, sebaceous glands and sweat glands
Sebaceous glands of the eye lid are
Meibomian glands
Sweat gland of the eye lid are
Glands of Moll
Arteries supplying the skin are located in the
Hypodermis
Papillary muscles of the heart ventricles are
Extensions of the myocardium and by chordae tendineae, stabilize cusps of mitral and tricuspid valves
Mitral valve (bicuspid)
Between L atrium and L ventricle
The lining of the bronchioles changes from
Pseudostratified columnal epithelium c cilia to simpli ciliated cuboidal epithelium in the terminal bronchioles
Left lung has 2 lobes
Right lung has 3 lobes
The resting rate for saliva production is
0.5ml per minute
Parotid gland is mostly made of
Serous cells – secrete a watery solution with amylase
Submandibular and sublingual glands contain
Mucous cells – secrete mucin
The colon has no
Vili – contains mainly absorptive cells
The rectum has extensive
Goblet cells present
The proximal tubule recovers
85% water and NaCl , 100% of glucose and amino acids
The distal tubule is controlled by
Aldosterone (absorbs more NaCl as the body needs)
The loop of Henle and the collecting tubule
Concentrate urine by absorbing water – regulated by ADH
Renal arteries arise form the
Abdominal aorta
Renal arteries branch into
Interlobar arteries and then to arcuate arteries
The arcuate arteries give rise to the
Cortical radial arteries that supply the afferent arterioles
The ectoderm gives to the
Skin epidermis and the nervous system
The GI tract is lined with epitheium from
Endodermal origin
The endoderm gives rise to
Liver, oancreas, gastric and intestinal glands
Smooth muscle is derived from
Mesenchyme
The three layers of the heart wall develop from
Mesenchyme