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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 main functions of the ovaries?
oogenesis, secretion of female sex steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
What is the functional unit of the ovary?
single ovarian follicle (one germ cell surrounded by endocrine cells)
At birth, the majority of germ cells are in what stage?
primary oocytes, in prophase of meiosis I
(ALL oogonia will be in this stage by 6months post partum)
What are the developmental steps that occur in the transformation of primordial germ cells to primary oocytes?
primordial germ cell -> mitosis -> oogonia -> enter prophase of meiosis I -> primary oocyte
What are the stages in the development of primordial ovarian follicles to mature follicle?
primordial ovarian follicle -> primary follicle (remains until puberty) -> secondary follicle (few follicle enter each menstrual cycle) -> graafian follicle (presence of antrum) -> ovulation!
When is the oocyte's first meiotic division completed?
upon ovulation (and begins 2nd division)
When is the 2nd meiotic division completed?
upon fertilization
What does the corpus luteum become if there is no fertilization?
corpus albicans
Why can't theca cells produce estradiol?
they contain cholesterol desmolase (stim by LH), thus can produce testosterone, but no aromatase
How is estradiol produced in the ovaries?
testosterone from theca cells diffuses to granulosa cells and is converted to 17beta-estradiol by aromatase (stim by FSH)
What type of feedback mechanism dominates the follicular phase?
LH and FSH stimulate estradiol secretion by follicular cells, which exerts NEGATIVE feeback on a/p to inhibit FSH/LH
What type of feedback mechanism dominates at midcycle?
when critical level of estradiol is reached, exerts POSITIVE feedback on a/p to cause LH/FSH surge
What type of feedback mechanism dominates the luteal phase?
progesterone secreted by ovaries exerts NEGATIVE feedback on a/p to inhibit LH/FSH s/c
What hormone is responsible for maturation and maintenance of uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina?
What hormone is responsible for development of secondary sex characteristics at puberty?
What hormone is responsible for developement of breasts?
estrogen and progesterone
What hormone is responsible for maintenance of pregnancy?
estrogen and progesterone
What hormone is responsible for proliferation and development of ovarian granulosa cells?
What hormone maintains secretory activity of uterus during luteal phase?
What hormone is responsible for upregulation of estrogen, progesterone, and LH receptors?
What type of feedback (neg or pos) does estrogen have on LH and FSH?
negative during follicular and luteal phases, positive during ovulation
What hormone raises uterine threshold to contractile stimuli during pregnancy?
progesterone (preserving pregnancy until fetus is ready to be delivered)
What hormone lowers uterine threshold to contractile stimuli during pregnancy?
What hormone stimulates prolactin secretion (but then blocks its action on the breast)?
What type of feedback (neg or pos) does progesterone have on LH and FSH?
negative, during luteal phase
What effects does estradiol have on the endometrial lining during the proliferative phase?
stimulates growth of endometrium, growth of glands and stroma, elongation of spiral arteries, causes cervical mucus to become copious, watery, elastic
Where are estrogen and progesterone synthesized during pregnancy?
first trimester: by corpus luteum
2nd,3rd: by placenta
What hormone affects body temperature during what part of the menstrual cycle?
progesterone raises body temp during luteal phase
What days are landmarks in the menstrual cycle?
day 1 = onset of menses from previous cycle
~day 15 (but can range from day 8 to day 22) = ovulation

luteal phase = 14 DAYS (ALWAYS CONSTANT)

*ovulation always occurs 14 days prior to menses*
What are the follicular changes during the proliferative phase?
one graafian follicle becomes the dominant follicle after neighboring follicles become atretic (degenerate)
What are the hormonal changes during the follicular phase, and what are the stimulatory factors?
receptors for FSH and LH (and estrogen) are up-regulated in ovarian theca and granulosa cells, gonadotropins stimulate synthesis of estradiol
What are the EFFECTS of the hormonal changes that occur during the follicular phase?
high estradiol causes:
1.proliferation of endometrial lining (which was recently shed)
2. neg feedback inhibition of LH and FSH from a/p
What event initiates ovulation?
estradiol levels pass threshold, exert positive feedback on LH, cause LH and FSH surge
What changes occur in the cervical mucus at ovulation?
cervical mucus increases in quantity and becomes more watery and penetrable by sperm
What happens to the follicle after ovulation?
becomes corpus luteum (theca-lutein and granulosa-lutein cells)
What hormones do the cells of the corpus luteum produce?
theca lutein cells produce adronstenedione (stim by LH), granulosa lutein cells (stim by FSH) produce estradiol (from androstenedione) and progesterone
What is the dominant hormone during the secretory phase?
What are the effects of progesterone in the early-mid secretory phase?
increased vascularization and secretory activity of endometrium, in preparation to receive fertilized ovum, basal body temp increases, and (w/estrogen) NEG FEEDBACK INHIBITION OF LH and FSH
What occurs hormonal changes occur in the late luteal phase, and what event precipitates these changes?
-low LH causes dec production of estrogen/progest by corpus luteum
-unless rescued by hCG, corpus luteum degenerates to corpus albicus and leads to decreased progesterone and estrogen
What is the result of these hormonal changes in the late luteal phase?
low estrogen/progest = diminished neg feedback inhibition of FSH/LH, so gonadotropin secretion begins to rise again