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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What do Neurotransmitters do?
They are the means of chemical comminication in the Nervous System
When was the frist neurotransmitter indentified?
In 1921.
How many many neurotransmitters have been idenified? How many do they actually think there are?
100 have been identified. They think there are only 200.
How do they classify an amino acid of a nerutransmitter?
As exitatory and Inhibitory
What is an exitatory neurotransmitter? and an example.
An exitatory neurotransmitter is one which depolarizes in the next neruon. And an example: norepinephrine, acetylcholine and dopamine.
What is an example of inhibitory neurotransmitter? And list examples.
Inhibiroty neurotransmitters which hyperpolarize the next neruron which prevents the nerve impulse from continuings. Examples include GABA and serotonin.
What must happen to the neurotransmitter after they do thier job?
they must be broken down
How big is the synapses across
its less then 1/10,000 of an inch across.
What causes a neurotransmitter to be released?
When in action potential travels down the axon of the neuron
Where is the neurotransmitter released from?
Its relased from the synaptic vesibles.
What process allows the neurotransmitter to be released?
What happens when the vesicles release the neurtonransnmitters?
They move by diffusion across the synapse which binds them to to receptor sites on the cell memebrane of the next neuron or on a muscle or gland cell
What type of neurotransmitter is GABA?
Its inhibitory
Where is GABA found?
ITs found on many places in the brain inluding the hypotanlamus and cerebrum.
What happens when GABA accumulates.
It has a sedative effect.
What does GABA inhibit?
excessive inpulse firing therefor itf present will calm and sedate you and prevent anxiety
How does valium and its relatives work? (such as xanax and atican)
they work by hyperpolarizing the neuron and allowing GABA to accumulate thus relaxing/sedating you and preventing anxiety
What is dopamine? excitatory or inhibitory?
what does dopamine regulate?
It regulates emotions, moods and subconscious control of skeletal muscle among other functions
describe the whole process of how a neurotransmitter is released.
An action potential travels down the axon of the neuron. This causes the release of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic vessicles. By exocytosis the vesicles release the neurotransmitter which travels by diffusion across the synapse. Then the NT binds to the receptor sites on the next neuron or a muscle or gland cell membrane.
What happens when dopamine accumulates in the pleasure centers of the brain?
The increase of dopamine leads to feelings of Euphoria, happiness and loss of inhibitions.
How does cocain work?
Cocain works by binding to protins that would normally transport dopamine away and therefore it builds up and creates pleasurable feelings.
How does Parkinson's disease involve dopamine
The prodution of dopamine is defficient.
Where is Acetylcholine found?
It is found in all the skelatal muscle neuromuscular junctions in the retina, many parts of the brain, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.
Is Acetylcholine inhibitory or excitatory?
It can be either, it depends on where it is.
What was the first neurotransmitter discoverd?
What drug inactivates acetylcholine receptors?
How are nicatine and receptors all involved in the addiction cycle?
The brain creates more receptors and this is a major part of the addiction cycle is nicotine products, such as cigareettes and chewing tobacco
Where is Glutamate found?
its foundin the cerebral cortex and brainstem.
How many excitatory transmisstions does Glucamate account for
What NT accounts for the most excitatory synapitic transmissions in the brain?
What is Glutamate involved in?
Its involved in learning and memory and believed to be one of the neurotransmitters invovlved in producing the symptoms of schizophrenia
Where is norephinephrine found?
Its found in many parts of the brain such as the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus spinal cord, and in cardiac and smooth muscle glands.
Is norepinephrine excitatory or inhibitory?
It can be either depending on its location or action
What is norephinephrine involved in?
Its involved with dreaming, wakeing, and mood. Its a cousin to adrenaline. Also your alertness, anxiety and even degree of shyness may be regulated by its amounts.
What might happen if someone gets to little norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex of the brain?
May be inplicated with ADHD
How do they think ADHD can occur?
With too little norephinephrine in the cerebral cortex
What is Ritalin believed to do?
Its believed to increase its avaliability to improbe concentration
What is believed to increase its avaliability to improbe concentration
Where is serotonin found?
Its found in the limbic system, hypothalamus, cerebellum, retina and spinal cord.
What is a neuropeptide?
Its a chain of amino acids that sometimes modify the action of neurotransmitters
what are some examples of neuropeptides?
endorphins and enkphalins. They are found in many parts of the brain and other body parts such as the spinal cord and difestive tract.
What do neuropeptides act as?
They act as natural pain relievers and create runner's high: reduce perception of fatique.
Endorphins and Enkephalinas are the bodys....
are the bodys natural opieans
What substnce does Enkephalins inhibit and what does this cause?
it inhibits substance P which mediates pain transmission in the boyd thereby helping to block pain.
What is released in tattoing and what happens when that is released?
Endorphins are released in tattooing and in body piercing which may lead ot addiction in some of these
What happens in old age in terms of nerurons
The neurons degenerate and there are changes in the levels of some neurotransmitters .
What can the degeneration of blood vessels in the brain can lead to ....
this can lead to senility and even sericous senilitiy, Alzheimers disease.
A think tissue covers the brain or spinal cord called the ...
What the Meninges
Its a thin tissue covers the brain and spinal cord.
What are ventricles
They are cavities in the brain which produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which protects, moistens and cushions brain and spinal cord.
What are the cavities in the brain which produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which protects, moistens and cushions brain and spinal cord
The ventricles
What does the medulla obalngata control?
It controls involuntary survival responces, such as heart and resp. rate, coughing, sneexing, vomitins, swolling, digestion rate. ETC.
What does the cerebellum control
it controls balance, coordination and muscle tone.
What does a sobriety test the effects of alchohol on?
on the cerebellum
What is the largest brain part?
The cerebrum
What is the cerebrum divided into and what is it covered by.
It is divided into right and left hemispheres and covered by folds calle gyri and grooves called sulci. It has a cortex or bark like outter covering about 2 mm thick and has the surface area of an average office desk.
What is the cerebrum involved in
It is involved in higher functions such as thought, perception which takes place as action potentials moving across and through the cortext. It has alos recently been show to be invovled in immune system control for if removed you will not produce T-Cells.
Explain the rat experiement.
The rats are put in three groups. The contols included cage size, temp, and all the rats desended from same genetic line. The first group was one rat by itself. The second group was 2 baby rats by themselves. The trhir group whas three baby rats with toys. The 1st rat group had the lightest brain and the third group had the heavest brain.
The Frontal lobe
It is involved in mood, speech, smell, motivation and aggression.
What is a lobotomy?
When a portion of the frontal lobe is removed in an attempt to control extreame aggression or depression.