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173 Cards in this Set

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Cerebrovascular Accident
Brain damage caused by occlusion or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (e.g. a stroke)
Aphasia
Difficulty in producing or comprehending speech not produced by deafness or motor deficits.
Lateralization
When functions or abilities are localized more in one hemisphere than the other
Verbal behavior is what type of function?
Lateralized
Most language disturbances arise from damages to which hemisphere?
Left hemisphere
Broca's Area
A region of the frontal cortex, located toward the base of the left primary motor cortex

Necessary of normal speech production
Broca's Aphasia
A form of aphasia characterized by agrammatism, anomia, and extreme difficulty in speech articulation.
Prosody
Rhythm, Tone, and Emphasis in Speech

Stuttering
Use of changes in _____ and _____ to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words.
intonation

emphasis
Stuttering
A speech disorder characterized by frequent pauses, prolongations of sounds, or repetitions of sounds, syllables, or words that disrupt the normal flow of speech.
Stuttering affects ___% of the population.
1%
Stuttering is ___ times more prevalent in men.
3
Stuttering may be due to overactive ______ or __________, which essentially leads to person trying to talk over his/her own voice.
Broca's area

Delay in auditory feedback
Relation to Aphasia
Reading and writing skills of people with aphasia typically resemble their speaking and comprehending abilities.
Pure Alexia
Loss of the ability to read without loss of the ability to write.

Produced by brain damage.
Whole-Word Reading
Reading by recognizing a word as a while (e.g. "sight reading")

Common words that we've seen before.
Phonetic Reading
Reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings (e.g. "sound reading")

Usually involved for unfamiliar words.
Surface Dyslexia
A reading disorder in which a person can read words phonetically, but has difficulty reading irregularly spelled words with the whole-word method.
People with ______ _______ make errors related to visual appearance and pronunciation of words, not in comprehension of them.
Surface Dyslexia
What are the 3 enzymes that need B3?
pyruvate DH,
alpha ketogluterate DH,
branched chain a.a. DH
Visual Word-Form Area
A region of the fusiform gyrus on the base of the temporal lobe that plays a critical role in whole-word recognition.
Direct Dyslexia
A language disorder caused by brain damage.

Can read whole words aloud without understanding them.
Developmental Dyslexia
Reading difficulties in a person of normal intelligence and perceptual ability.

Of genetic origin
Phonological Dysgraphia
A writing disorder in which one cannot sound out words and write them phonetically.

Cannot write unfamiliar words or pronounce simple non-words. (i.e. ghat)
Orthographic Dysgraphia
A writing disorder in which one can spell regularly spelled words but not irregularly spelled ones.

These individuals can ONLY sound out words.

Works well for words where spelling is similar to sound (tree), but not for words that are not spelled as they sound (busy).
Agrammatism
Difficulty in comprehending or properly employing grammatical devices, such as verbal endings and word order.
Anomia
Difficulty in remembering the appropriate word to describe an object or attribute.
Circumlocution
Strategy by which people with anomia find alternative ways to say something when they are unable to think of the most appropriate word.
Apraxia of Speech
Impairment in one's ability to program movements of the tongue, lips, and throat required to produce the proper sequence of speech sounds.
Wernicke's Area
Region of auditory association cortex on the left temporal lobe of humans.

Important for word comprehension and production of meaningful speech.
Wernicke's Aphasia
Aphasia characterized by poor speech comprehension and fluent but meaningless speech.
Pure Word Deafness
Ability to hear, speak, (usually) read and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech.

Caused by damage to Wernicke's area or auditory input to it.
Transcortical Sensory Aphasia
Difficulty comprehending speech and producing meaningful speech and producing meaningful spontaneous speech.
Transcortical Sensory Aphasia is caused by damage to _____.
the brain posterior to the Wernicke's area.
Autotopagnosia
Inability to name body parts or to identify body parts that another person names.

Caused by damage to part of association cortex of the left parietal lobe.
Arcuate Fasciculus
Bundle of axons that connects Wenicke's area with Broca's area.

Damage causes conduction aphasia.
Conduction Aphasia
Inability to repeat words that are heard.

But, one has the ability to speak normally and comprehend the speech of others.
Tumor
A mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful function.
Mallignant Tumor
A cancerous tumor.

Lacks a distinct border and may metastasize.
Benign Tumor
A noncancerous tumor.

Has a distinct border and cannot metastasize.
Metastasis
Process by which cells break off of a tumor, travel through the vascular system, and grow elsewhere in the body.
Giloma
A cancerous brain tumor composed of one of several types of glial cells.

Extremely fast-growing.
Meningioma
A benign brain tumor composed of the cells that constitute the meninges.

Even though benign, can still cause seizures or other neurological issues.
Seizure
Preffered term for epilepsy.

Second most important category of neurological disorder (after stroke)

Defined: sudden, excessive activity of cerebral neurons.
_________ in US have seizure disorder.
2.5 million
Convulsion
A violent sequence of uncontrollable muscular movements caused by a seizure.
Partial Seizure (Have a focus)
A seizure that begins at a focus and remains localized (caused by old injury or faulty blood vessel), not generalizing to the rest of the brain.
General Seizure
A seizure that involves most of the brain.

Some grow from specific focus, others are of unknown origin.
Simple Partial Seizure
A partial seizure, starting from a focus and remaining localized, that does not produce a loss of consciousness.
Complex Partial seizure
A partial seizure, starting at a focus and remaining localized, that produces a loss of consciousness.
Grand Mal Seizure
A generalized, tonic-clonic seizure, which results in a convulsion.
Tonic phase
seizure wher the patient's skeletal muscles are contracted.
Clonic phase
seizure where the patient shows rhythmic jerky movements
Absence
A type of seizure disorder often seen in children.

Characterized by periods of inattention, which are not remembered.

Catatonic trance
Status Epilepticus
A condition in which a patient undergoes a series of seizures without regaining consciousness.
Strokes
Can impair perception, emotional recgonition/expression, memory, and language.
Hemorrhagic Strokes
A cerebrovascular accident caused by the rupture of a cerebral blood vessel.

Bleeding within the brain.
Obstructive stroke
A cerebrovascular accident caused by occlusion of a blood vessel.

Blood clot; prevents flow of blood in blood vessel.
Embolus
A place of matter (e.g., blood clot, fat) that dislodges from its site of origin and occludes an artery.

An embolus in the brain can lead to a stroke.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A birth defect caused by ingestion of alcohol by a pregnant woman.

Can cause abnormal facial and deficient brain development.
Neural Adhesion Protein
A protein that plays a role in brain development.

Alcohol interferes with this.
Phenylketonuria
A hereditary disorder caused by inherited lack of enzyme that converts the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine.

Can be treated with low-phenylalanine diet.
The accululation of ________ causes brain damage.
Phenylalanine
Pyridoxine Dependency
A metabolic disorder in which an infant requires larger-than-normal amounts of pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) to avoid neurological symptoms.

Consequences can include damage to cerebellum and thalamus.
Galactosemia
An inherited metabolic disorder in which galactose cannnot easily be metabolized.

Consequences include damage to the cerebellum.

Treated by milk substitute that does not contain sugar galactose.
Tay-Sachs Disease
A hereditary, fatal, metabolic storage disorder.

A lack of enzymes in lysosomes causes the accumulation of waste products and the swelling of cells in the brain.

Brain damages itself inside the skull.

Cannot be treated
Down Syndrome
A disorder caused by the presence of an extra twenty-first chromosome at birth.
Down Syndrome occurs at a rate of
1 in 700 births.
Down Syndrome is characterized by
moderate-to-severe mental retardation, and often by physical abnormalities.

Positively correlated with mother's age.
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

Fatal brain disease
Contagious disease whose degenerative process gives the brain a sponge-like appearance.

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (i.e., "Mad Cow" disease)
TSE is transmitted through ingestion of protein infectious agents called _____.
prions
Parkinson's Disease Symptoms
muscular rigidity, slowness of movement, a resting tremor, & postural instability.
Parkinson's Disease is found in ____% of the population over 65 years of age.
1%
Parkinson's Disease is cause by
the degeneration of the dopamine-secreting neurons of the substantia nigra.
Treatments for Parkinson's Disease
Deep Brain Stimulation & Gene Therapy
Deep Brain Stimulation
Electrodes placed deep in brain tissue to stimulate brain

Effective in supressing tremors
Gene Therapy
Gene replacement surgery.

Mixed results: Often comes with side effects.
Huntington's Disease
An inherited disorder that causes degeneration of the basal ganglia.
Huntington's Disease is characterized by
progressively more sever uncontrollable jerking movements, writhing movements, dementia, and finally death.
Huntington's Disease is caused
via abnormal development of a protein called huntingtin.
Alzheimer's Disease
A degenerative brain disorder of unknown origin.
Alzheimer's Disease causes
progressive memory loss, motor deficits, and death.
Alzheimer's Disease occurs in ___% of population over 65, & ____% of population over 85.
10% of pop. over 65

50% of pop. over 85
Amyloid Plaque
an extracellular deposit containing a dense core of protein

Surrounded by degenerating axons and dendrites.

Common in patients with Alzheimer's Disease.
Neurofibrillary Tangle
A dying neuron containing accumulations of abnormal proteins that formerly served as the cell's internal skeleton.

Sign that cells have died.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
A degenerative disorder that attacks the spinal cord and cranial nerve motor neurons.
Multiple Sclerosis
An autoimmune disease.

Person's immune system randomly attacks myelin in the CNS.

Normal transmission of neural messages through axons without myelin is interrupted.
Korsakoff's Syndrome
A disease caused by a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often caused by chronic alcoholism.
Korsakoff's Syndrome causes damage to
hypothalamus
Korsakoff's Syndrome produces
anterograde amnesia.

Amnesia of events after onset of Korsakoff's Syndrome
Encephalitis
An inflammation of the brain caused by bacteria, viruses, or toxic chemicals.

Transmitted via mosquitoes, who pick up infection from horses, birds, or rodents.
Encephalitis can also be caused by
Herpes Simplex Virus
Herpes Simplex Virus
A virus that normally causes a cold sore near the lips, but can also (rarely) cause brain damage
Acute Anterior Poliomyelitis
A viral disease that destroys motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord.

Can be vaccinated against this.
Rabies
A fatal virus disease that causes brain damage.

Usually transmitted through the bit of an infected animal.

Attacks CNS, and cerebellum and hippocampus (emotional center) in particular.
Meningitis is an inflammation of
the meninges
Meningitis can be caused by
viruses or bacteria

by spread of middle ear infection into brain, or through infection of brain by head injury.
Meningitis can lead to _____ through interference with circulation of blood in brain.
death
Schizophernia is characterized by
disordered thoughts

delusions

hallucinations

bizarre behaviors
schizophrenia is a ______ trait
heritable
Schizophrenia is marked by _____ and _____ symptoms.
positive and negative
Positive symptoms
symptoms that manifest themselves through their presence
examples of positive symptoms
thought disorders - disorganized, irrational thinking

hallucinations - perceptions of stimuli that are not present

delusions - beliefs that are obviously contrary to fact
(persecution, grandeur, control)
Negative symptoms
marked y absences of normal functioning
examples of negative symptoms
flattneed emotional response

poverty of speech

lack of initiative and persistence

anhedonia - inability to experience pleasure

social withdrawal
Anhedonia
inability to experience pleasure
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia cause by ______ _______ _____.
overactive dopamine neurons.
Dopamine antagonists eliminate some of the _____ _____ of schizophrenia.
positive symptoms.
Dopamine agonists (i.e. cocain, amphetamine) produce some _____ like symptoms such as ____, ____, and ____.
schizophrenia

disorganized thoughts, delusions, and hallucinations
Schizophrenia causes
enlarged ventricles

reduced gray matter

hypofrontality
Hypofrontality
decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex
Hypofrontality is believe to be responsible for the ______ symptoms of schizophrenia
negative
Bipolar Disorder
serious mood disorder characterized by cyclical periods of mania and depression

-episodes of mania can last a few days or several months
Depressive episodes in bipolar disorder typically last ___ times as long as manic episodes.
3
Major Depressive Disorder
Serious mood disorder that consists of unremitting depression or periods of depression that do not alternate with periods of mania.

-accompanied by feelings of guilt or unworthiness

-suicide risk
Which disorder has the highest risk of suicide?
Major Depressive Disorder
Evidence indicates a tendency for affective disorders to be ______.
heritable.
Tricyclic Antidepressant
class of drugs used to treat depression

inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin

by slowing reuptake, drugs keep neurotransmitters in contact with postsynaptic receptors, thus prolonging postsynaptic potentials
Trycyclic Antidepressants ________ the impact of neurotransmitters.
increase
Specific Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)
antidepressant drug that specifically inhibits the reuptake of serotonin.
Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI)
Antidepressant drug that specifically inhibiuts the reuptake of both norepinephrine and serotonin.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
brief electrical shock, applied to the head, that results in an electrical seizure.
ECT is used to treat _____.
depression

-originally ECT was used to dreat disorders including schizophrenia, but effectiveness is limited soley to depression/bipolar disorder
Excessive use of ECT causes ____ ____.
brain damage.
Deep Brain Stimulation
Electrical stimulation of frontal cortex can bring about remission in those patients suffering from major depression who do not respond to medication, psychotherapy, & electroconvlsiv etherapy.
Vagus Nerve Stimulation
Implanted stimulator sends electric impulses to the left vagus nerve in the neck via a lead wire implanted under the skin.
Lithium
a chemical element used to treat bipolar disorder.
Monoamine Hypothesis
Hypothesis states that depression is caused by a low level of activity of one or more monominergic synapses

-in other words, insufficient activity from neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and serotonin responsible for depression.
Neurogenesis
Birth of neurons; process by which neurons are generated.
Adult-born neurons regulate ____ & facilitate _____.
stress

learning/memory.
Some evidence in animal model suggests that decreased ________ produces symptoms of depression but this has not been confirmed in humans.
neurogenesis
Exercise increases ______ and has been used to treat ______.
neurogenesis

depression
______ _____ is a prominent symptom of depression.
Disordered sleep
Sleep Deprivation is one of the most effective _______ ________.
antidepressant treatments.
Sleep deprivation causes
reduced sleep latency

reduced REM latency

reduced slow-wave sleep

increased sleep disruption
Seasonal Affective Disorder
a mood disorder characterized by depression lethargy, sleep disturbances, and craving for carbohydrates during the winter season when days are short.
Phototherapy
treatment of seasonal affective disorder by daily exposure to bright light.
Panic Disorder
a disorder characterized by episodic periods of symptoms such as shortness of breath, irregularities in heartbeat, etc.

accompanied by intense, unreasonable fear
Anticipatory Anxiety
a fear of having a panic attack

may lead to the development of agoraphobia

may be another symptom of panic disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Characterized by excessive anxiety and worry serious enough to cause disruption to one's life.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Characterized by excessive fear of being exposed to the scrutiny of other people
Social Anxiety Disorder leads to
avoidance of social situations in which person is called on to perform.
Panic Disorder, GAD, and Social Anxiety Disorder Possible causes:
heritability

misattribution of arousal

overactive amygdala

abnormal serotonin transporter (gene)
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
A mental disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions
Obsessions
unwanted thought or idea with which a person is preoccupied
Compulsion
feel that one is obliged to perform a behavior, even if one prefers not to do so.
OCD occurs in ___% of the population.
1-2%
OCD is slightly more likely in _____ than _____.
females than males.
OCD involves obsessions with _____ over germs or dirt, feelings of ____, & need for ____.
disgust

dread

exactness
OCD Involves compulsions of ___, ____, ___, & ____.
counting, checking, cleaning, & avoidance.
People with OCD are unlikely to ___, and practice social avoidance.
marry
Possible causes of OCD
heritable
Tourette's syndrome - positively associated with OCD, repetitive ticks, (vulgar) words, muscle twitches.

through non-genetic brain damage - infection, damage to basal ganglia, or overactive frontal lobe
Treatment for OCD
Medication

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

-Frontal lobe surgery & Deep Brain Stimulation (in extreme cases)
Autistic Disorder
A chronic disorder whose symptoms include:

failure to develop normal social relations with other people

impaired development of communicative ability

lack of imaginative ability

repetitive movements
Possible causes of Autism
Heritability

Brain Pathology
Brain trauma at birth
Encephalitis (caused by herpes virus)

tuberous sclerosis (causes tumors to form rapidly)
Theory of Mind and the Diminished Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS)
STS is responsible for detecting the actions of other individuals.
Diminished Fusiform Face Area (FFA)
responsible for recognizing facial expressions, maintaining eye contact, detecting emotion.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
A disorder characterized by:

Uninhibited responses - inappropriate outbursts, impulsivity problems.

Poor planning

Forgetfulness

Lack of sustained attention

Hyperactivity
Possible causes of ADHD
Heritability

Function of time

Under activity of dopamine transmissions
Function of time
Delays in reinforcement render reinforcement relatively ineffective

however, immediate reinforcement is highly effective
Under activity of dopamine transmissions
drugs that increase speed of dopamine transmissions alleviate symptoms altogether
Stress
a general, imprecise term that can refer either to a stress response or to a situation that elicits a stress response.
"Absence of stress is ____"
death
Health effects of long-term stress
Hypertension

Wound Healing
Hypertension
stress causes an increase in blood pressure
Wound Healing
stress causes an increase in the time to heal wounds
Effects of Stress on the brain
Elevates glucocorticoid levels
-destroys neurons associated with hippocampus
-diminished memory capacity


Impairs development of primed-burst potentiation
-impaired hippocampal neurogenesis

Disrupts learning

Prenatal Stress

Hippocampal Damage
Prenatal stress
increases size of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala
-increased fear response in infants

Elevates glucocorticoid response to stress
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
A psychological disorder caused by exposure to a situation of extreme danger and stress
Symptoms of PTSD
Recurrent dreams or recollections (flashbacks)

can interfere with social activities and cause a feeling of hopelessness
PTSD includes many brain regions, including ___, ___, & _____.
the amygdala (sensitive), hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex.
In general, long-term stress:
decreases immune function

increases the susceptibility to infection