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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is hematcrit?
percentage of packed RBCs
What are the different conditions that can affect HCT?
drink too much water, dilute HCT. not too much water, increase HCT. lose blood, no change in HCT
Why don't we overheat since we are producing heat around 100W?
because we are losing heat to the environment at the same rate.
What are the 4 ways we lose heat to the environment? What is the most significant method?
convection, conduction, radiation, evaporation. Radiation is at least 50%.
How does relative humidity affect evaporation?
it inhibits evaporation. Therefore, at high RH and high body temp, not able to cool.
Difference between acclimitization and acclimation.
with the z, modifying physiology in the real world while the other is modifying in the lab
what is hypernetremia?
overdrinking of water when extremely dehydrated. okay for the legs, but in the brain, due to diffusion of water, brain expands and compresses blood vessels
What are the 3 top things that occur when one acclimates to heat?
1) increased sweat rate to help cool faster
2) reduced loss NaCl in sweat. means that one is retaining NaCl, therefore, not losing as much and can exercise longer
3) increased ECF volume which allows one to store more water which then allows one to sweat more
What are the intracellular concentrations for the following: Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl-
Intracellular concentrations:
Na+ = 10mM, K+ = 135-145mM, Ca++ = 0.1uM, Cl- = 5
What are the EXTRACELLULAR concentrations for Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl -?
EXTRACELLULAR CONC.: Na+ =140mM, K+ = 3.5-5mM, Ca+ = ,
What is partition coeffient?
Partition Coeff measures lipid solubility. If it is high, it is very soluable in lipid.
Does one want to have a high partition coeffient?
yes, because it will be able to diffuse through the plasma membrane and enter the cell. Good for drugs to work.
What is the diffusion coefficient?
it is based on the size and shape of the molecule. It is the RLS. Smaller the size and more spherical shape, the faster the diffusion
What are porins?
Another mechanism to help with the diffusion of water in tissues that need to have water come through quickly like the kidneys?
What are the 3 types of porins known?
aquaporins for water, glycerol and urea porins
What is the difference between porins and channels?
Channels have gates
What type of gates are on the channels.
One has activation gates which are fast and inactivation gates which are slow ( eg Na channel)
How is it that one can measure Troponin, a cardiac muscle protein? And the significance of the protein?
Because plasma membranes are not perfect and can have defects in where there are holes. Troponin can diffuse through the holes & one can measure the severity of a Heart Attach by the conc of this molecule. Detected by ELISA- greater the amount of troponin, more severe the attack
What are symports or co-transporter?
a transporter that does 2 types of solutes in the same direction
What are uniporters?
Transporters that allow facilitated diffusion. They sometimes change their shape so that the solute is sometimes outward and sometimes inward. GLUT transporters are an example
What are transporters?
Specialized proteins that help fo speed up the movement of solutes. they can use ATP or not.
What is an exchanger or antiporter?
they are the same thing. they transport 2 molecules, but in the opposite direction.
What class of transporter is the Ca/ATPase pump?
uses direct ATP and very SLOW and against concentration gradient
Importance of Na/K pump
to maintain the internal concentration otherwise, they would diffuse out
What are the 6 cellular processes that are energized by ion gradients?
1.chemiosmotic (uptake of nutrients, metabolites, salts)
2. osmotic volume regulation
3. mechanical
4. chemical
5. signal transduction
6. homeostasis
Examples of symporters?
1) SGLT1 - Na/glucose for glucose uptake
2) H+/lactose - for lactose uptake
3) Na+/K+/2Cl- for NaCl regulation and secretion
Examples of Uniporters
1) Glut1 - glucose uptake
2) Glut4 - insulin responsive glucose uptake
Examples of Exchangers?
NHE1 - Na+/H+ for acid -base balance
What are the 3 cell surface receptors?
enzyme-linked receptor, channel-linked, and G-protein
Importance of Calcium in the heart and effect of the Na/Ca exchanger
the heart contracts due to an Action Potential which causes increase intracellular Ca++ and Ca++ binds to troponin and heart contracts.
effect of prolonged Ca in the heart
more powerful heartbeat
What happens if the exchanger and pump are fast acting?
lowers the intracellular Ca conc and thus heart contraction weak and it relaxes