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32 Cards in this Set

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Inflammation of gastric mucosa
Can lead to ulceration if untreated
Can be caused by bacterial infection, alcohol, aspirin
Gastritis
stomach acids or bile salts back up into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) producing a burning sensation behind the breastbone and esophageal irritation or inflammation
GERD, also known as acid reflux
vitamin B12 absorption is impaired in both short-bowel syndrome and intestinal bacterial stasis syndrome through the loss of ileal receptors and by bacterial uptake or cleavage of the intrinsic factor complex. Consequently, the patient becomes progressively malnourished with a deficiency of body fat, fat-soluble vitamins, and vitamin B12. Such patients typically suffer from extreme diarrhea and learn to restrict their food intake in order to reduce the frequency of their meal-stimulated stool evacuations, further compromising their nutritional state.
Crohn’s disease
The risk of developing _____ in patients with symptomatic Crohn's disease who develop disease early in life may be three- to 20-fold higher than that of the general population.
colon cancer
Pellagra is a disease characterised by diarrhoea, dermatitis and dementia. If left untreated, death is the usual outcome. It occurs as a result of niacin (vitamin B-3) deficiency. Niacin is required for most cellular processes. Since tryptophan in the diet can be converted to niacin in the body, both of these need to be deficient for pellagra to develop.
Hartnup disease
Complications of gastric resection and vagotomy
Dumping syndrome
Abdominal distension. This is the most important sign of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction in the neonatal period, particularly if accompanied by bilious vomiting, tenderness, or delayed passage of meconium
Paralytic (adynamic) ileus
Stomach secretions lack intrinsic factor (protein that aids B12 absorption)
B12 not absorbed in sufficient amounts, B12 needed by neurons, blood cells
Pernicious anemia
Increased motility and secretion caused by irritated mucosa, infection
Enteritis
Parasympathetic stimulation
Increases motility and secretion
Psychogenic diarrhea
Inflammation and ulceration of large intestine walls
Ulcerative colitis
Stimulation of brain center -> deep breath -> open upper esophageal sphincter -> glottal closing -> soft palate closes off posterior nares -> diaphragm/abdominal muscles contract simultaneously -> lower esophageal shpincter relaxes
Vomiting
Pt presents w/
Chronic vomiting
Nutrient loss
Alkalosis (more acids expelled than bases)
Where is the intestinal obstruction?
Pyloric
Pt presents w/
Small intestine antiperistaltic reflux
Dehydration

Where is the intestinal obstruction?
Beyond stomach
Pt presents w/

Acidosis (more bases than acids expelled)
Fecal matter can also get expelled after several days of obstruction

Where is the intestinal obstruction?
Near lower end of small intestine
Pt presents w/

Multiple weeks of fecal accumulation results in severe constipation followed by intense vomiting

Where is the intestinal obstruction?
Near distal end of colon
Decreased pancreatic secretions -> Large amounts of fatty feces
steatorrhea
90% due to alcohol or gallstone
Pancreatitis
Blockage of pancreatic duct at papilla of Vater by gallstone, Results in __________
autodigestion of pancreas
Characterized by protein deficiency, occurs mainly in impoverished countries
carbohydrates serve as primary source of nutrition
Kwashiorkor
genetic mutations in the apical chloride channel results in low volume of exocrine secretion & buildup of mucous
Cystic fibrosis
_______ output is decreased with Chronic pancreatitis
Tripsin
fibrosis
ductal occlusion
autodigestion
decrease in pancreatic function
steatorrhea
weight loss
upper abdominal pain
Chronic pancreatitis
autodigestion
Increased levels of pancreatic enzymes
abdominal pain
inflammation
edema
hemorrhage
hypovolemia
hypotension
necrosis
Acute pancreatitis
impairment of the defecation reflex
brought on by chronic constipation
Commonly caused by sigmoid myenteric plexus ganglion cell deficiency
(Hirschsprung’s disease)
_____ deficiency is a congenital defect whose symptoms include glucose and galactose intolerance, diarrhea, body wasting
SGLT-1
-lactase deficiency
-age dependent
-symptoms
-abdominal discomfort
-diarrhea
Lactose intolerance
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
vitamin B12 deficiency
degradation of the gastric luminal wall & gastric mucosal barrier that causes an impermeant of tight junctions.
symptoms include hemorrhage
& perforation of the stomach wall
PEPTIC ULCER
causes of peptic ulcer
Helicobacter pylori
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
caffeine, alcohol
autoimmune dz.
inflammation due to an allergic response to gluten damages intestinal villi & flattens mucosa which reduces the surface area.
Pathology is reversible.
Gluten enteropathy
pancreatic gastrinoma
ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME