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48 Cards in this Set

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Declarative Memory
The aspect of memory that stores facts and events. Anatomical areas include the hippocampus, dorso medial thalamus, amygdala, & temporal cortex. Deals with the "What"
Episodic Memory
One of two types of Declarative Memory. The knowledge about the event of learning something.
Semantic Memory
One of two types of Declarative Memory. The knowledge independent of context, the knowledge of meaning of words and how to apply them.
Procedural Memory
The long-term memory of skills and procedures. The brain learns through trial and error. Damage to hippocampus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia affect procedural learning. Deals with the "How"
Who was HM?
He had a bilateral temporal lobectomy which resulted in memory impairment that still exists today. He doesnt remember anything from his surgery on. He was 27 years old @ surgery, and only has memorys until he was 16. He has immediate memory but no remote memory; you can take out the hippocampus but still access some templates in the brain.
Apraxia
An impairment in the ability to begin and execute skill voluntary movements, even though there is no muscle paralysis
Limb Apraxia
Inability to make fine precise movements with limb. Damaged area mainly the motor strip, if predominately right hand, the lesion will be in left hemisphere.
Callosal Apraxia
You can make a learned skill movement with your right hand; but cant mimic with your left hand. Occurs from lesion in the anterior corpus callosum. The lesion prevents motor information from crossing to the right hemisphere.
Constructional Apraxia
The person can use objects properly and can make learned skill movements. But they cannot draw objects and have difficulty with percieving geometric relationships. Occurs from damage to the association cortex's visual spatial component. The right parietal lobe damage is being tested for spatial relationship problems.
Sympathetic Apraxia
A person can spontaneously perform actions on the unaffected side, but cannot do so with commands. This is due to a disconnection of the language apparatus from the nondominant temporal lobe. Damage typically seen in the anterior hemisphere (right or left)
Left Parietal Apraxia
Caused by lesion to the left posterior hemisphere. Affects both limbs. This area of the brain allows you to keep track of objects in the environment and follow them.
The Frozen Addict
Study the give us first model of Parkinsons. Occured by accident, drug addicts took synthasized herion that had a neurotoxin in it. They found that MPTP accumalates in the substania nigra and caudate nucleus and binds with a selective form of MAO. We have the pigment in the substantia nigra that MPP+ binds to.
Neural Mechanisms of Waking and Sleeping (Part 1)
1) Basal forebrain system in the ventral frontal lobe induces SWS by releasing GABA. GABA inhibits thalamus and cortex. Ach excites the thalamus and cortex; also switches sleep from NREM to REM.
Neural Mechanisms of Waking and Sleeping (Part 2)
2) Reticular system wakes the forebrain. One part of the brainstem contributes to cortical arousal. It also recieves sensory input, these neurons generate their own impulses, sending their axons to the thalamus and basal forebrain, wher Ach and glutamate are released to produce cortical arousal.
Neural Mechanisms of Waking and Sleeping (Part 3)
3) A pontine system triggers REM sleep and paralysis. The locus coeruleus supresses REM sleep and inceases information storage during wakefulness.
Neural Mechanisms of Waking and Sleeping (Part 4)
A hypothalamic system acts as a sleep center and affects all three systems to determine sleeping and waking, via excitatory/inhibitory effects. At least two hypothalamic pathways stimulate attention by releasing histamine.
Neural Mechanims of Waking and Sleeping (Part 5)
SWS is primarily controlled by the medulla and the pons. Neurons in those structures send axons to the cortex and release serotonin which inhibits cortical activity. There are two interconnected sets of neurons in the pons that interact as the shift between SWS and REM sleep.
Neural Control of Arousal (RF)
The RF extends from the medulla into the forebrain and is involved in regulating arousal. Its formation consists of ascending and descending axonal pathways that travel to the thalamus and the basal forebrain where they release Ach and glutamate to produce excitatory effects. Thalamic and basal forebrain areas then relay arousal throughout the cortex.
Neural Control of Arousal (LC)
The Locus Coeruleus releases NA in response to meaningful events. This structure is the richest source for NA projecting axons to the cortex. The basal forebrain areas project Ach axons to the thalamus and cerebral cortex where they produce postsynaptic excitatory and behavioral arousal.
Alpha Motor Neuron
It is a motor neuron that controls the extrafusal fibers of a muscle. Its cell bodies originate in the gray matter of the spinal cord and go out the ventral root to innervate skeletal muscles. It is the largest axons found in the peripheral nerves.
Extrafusal Muscle Fibers
One of the ordinary muscle fibers that lie outside the spindles and provide most of the force for muscle contraction. Its primary and secondary nerve endings are found here. Served by axons of the alpha motor neurons.
Motor Unit
A single motor axon and all the muscle fibers that it innervates. Alpha motor neuron and fiber muscles that innervates its simplest/most fundemental aspect. Its neurotransmitter (Ach) is released in the motor end plate. Once Ach goes into the receptors on the endplate, it creates a graded response (EPP)
Gamma Motor Neuron
A motor neuron that innervates the contractile tissue in the muscle spindle. Its a slower, more controlled neuron, coordinated in regards to the sensitivity of the receptors. Its role is in coordinating movements. It comes out the ventral root in the spinal cord. The efferent axons cause the intrafusal muscle fiber to contract, but offers little force. It serves to modfy the sensitivity of the fiber's afferent axon to force.
Neuromuscular Junction
The synapse region where the efferent terminal button and the adjoing muscle fiber meet. Its the point where the nerve transmits the message to the muscle fiber.
Endplate Potential
A graded response created when Ach binds at the motor endplate of an alpha motor neuron. If the EPP is sufficient enough, it will cause an action muscle potential.
Corticospinal Pathway
A pyriamidal system that takes into account the motor system including neurons within the cerebral cortex and their axons. Axons terminate in the gray matter of the spinal cord, through pyramidial tracts. Lateral corticospinal pathways receive information from arms, hands, and fingers. Ventral corticospinal pathways receive information from the trunk and legs.
Corticobullar Pathway
Is a movement coordination pathway. It goes from the cortex to the medulla. It includes cranial nerve nuclei from 5,7,10, and 12. It originates in the face and tongue
Huntington's Chorea
Results from a progressive loss of the caudate, putenum, and globus pallidus. Typified by progressive atrophy of the straitum. Also a loss of GABA nuerons in the basal ganglia.
Narcolepsy
Disorder that involves frequent intense episodes of sleep during the waking hour, lasts from 5-30 minutes. Most people also experience cataplexy. May be associated with damage to the amygdala, tends to run in families. People also experience hypnogogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis.
Cataplexy
Sudden episodes of loss of muscle function, ranging from weakness to complete body collapse. Attacks may be triggered by sudden emotional reactions such as laughter, anger, or fear. The person remains conscious throughout the episode.
Zeitgeber
"Time giver" in German. The stimulus the entrains circadian rhythm. Any cue that an animal uses to synchronize its activity in the environment. Light is the most powerful cue. The process of shifting and estabilishing a circadian rhythm is called entrainment. Circadian rhythms also can be entrained by social stimuli.
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
A small region of the hypothalamus above the optic chiasm that is the location of a circadian oscillator. If lesioned there, it will disrupt the circadian rhythm. It consists of two nuclei which lie on either hemisphere seperated by the third ventricle. Is one of four nuclei that receives nerve signals from the retina.
Locus Coeruleus
Small nucleus in the brain stem that is responsible for the physiological reactions involved in stress and panic. It also plays a role in activating the waking state. Its neurons produce neurepimephrine and modulate large areas of the forebrain. It recieves input from the medial prefrontal cortex and the lateral hypothalmus.
Stimulus-Response Specifity
Given an individual's pattern of physiological activation it will be similar in a given situation. The pattern will change when a sitaution chanegs. In a given situation, it will respond in a similar pattern to all situations.
Ventral Tegmental Area
A portion of the midbrain that projects dopaminergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens. It is rich in dopamine and serotonin neurons and is part of two major dopamine pathways. The mesolimbic (connecting the VTA to the nucleus accumbens) and the mesocortical (connects the VTA to cortical areas of the frontal lobe). Considered to be part of the pleasure and reward system.
Homeostasis
The tendency for the internal environment to remain at a constant physiological equilibrium.
Circadian Rhythm
A pattern of behavioral, biochemical, and physiological functions that occurs during a 24-hour period. The cycle is free running and is cued by light. Data suggests a relation to depression. It appears that the SCN takes information on day length from the retina, interprets it, and passes it on to the pineal gland, which secretes the hormone melatonin in response.
Parkinson's Disease
A degenerative disease of substantia nigra and locus coeruleus that leads to diminished acivity of the dopamine in the basal ganglia. It is a progressive movement disorder that is commonly associated with depression and disturbances in sensory systems. Sxs: tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement, lack of spontaneous movement, walking and balance problems. L-Dopa used as a treatment to slow progression
Korsakoff's Syndrome
A continuum of Wernicke's disease. A condition characterized by mental confusion, ocular disturbances, and ataxia. Presents with symptoms of antergrade and retrograde amnesia. Caused by damage to mamillary bodies of hypothalamus, lesions in dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus, and other brain regions due to defieciny of thiamine (VB1). This is most often associated with chronic alcoholism and severe malnutrition. Develops sudden jerky movements, poor balance, staggered gait, inability to walk, confusion. It inflames the stomach lining and impedes the ability to absorb nutrients.
Aphasia
Damage to the left hemisphere often produces aphasia, which is a disturbance in language function or comprehension. Tends to be caused by strokes, head trauma, or severe infections.
Anterograde Amnesia
Occurs from damage to medial temporal lobes that contain the hippocampus and amygdala. Its the inability to consolidate new memories. Memories prior to the injury are intact. Short term memory is not impaired. Occurs from damage to hippocampus, medial temporal lobes, or basal forebrain.
Retrograde Amnesia
The inability to retrieve information from long-term storage. The loss of memory before the injury. Can last from several minutes to several years. This is a very rare type of amnesia. If they have RA they will have AA.
Pure Word Deafness
The person can speak normal, but cannot understand spoken words. They can hear nonverbal sounds in the environment. They have normal hearing. Arises from lesions that isolates input from Wernicke's area.
Wernicke's Aphasia
The person has a deficit in speech comprehension and cannot understand spoken language; therefore they have problems with receptive language. They have no feedback loop, therefore it may effect their expressive language. The person is unaware of their deficit. Arises from problems in the posterior, superior temporal lobe.
Broca's Aphasia
The persons speech production is poor. They have good comprehension but poor speech. They do not use correct words and leave off the endings to words. Arise from lesions in Broca's area. Use less than 4 words and have limited writing abilities.
Anomic Aphasia
The person has a persistant inability to supply words for things they want to talk about, primarily nouns and verbs. They can understand speech well, but have word finding difficulties.
Global Aphasia
Most severe form. A persons speech output is severely skewed. They have no spoken language. They relay on short utterances. They cant understand written or spoken language. Typically happens to stroke victims, and they may improve after the swelling goes down.
Sleep Apnea
Occurs when breathing stops intermittentily during sleep. In children has been related to a possibility of SIDS. Tends to be most evident in middle age, obese, and people with a lack of muscle tone.