Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/92

Click to flip

92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
ipsilateral
on the same side
not contralateral
contralateral
on the opposite side
contra=against
anterior
in front of, closest
opposite of posterior
posterior
farthest away, behind
posterior end=behind
rostral
front of brain
rooster
caudal
back of brain
opposite of rostral
dorsal
back, closest to skull in brain
dorsal fin
ventral
stomach side, below
opposite of dorsal
lateral
side
medial
middle (belly button, for example)
median is...
which way does a cross/frontal section go?
vertical to head, up and down: nose <(|) back of head
like an MRI
which way does a horizontal section go?
through the head as though a helicopter sliced it
horizon, Helicopter
which way does a sagittal cut go?
down the middle of the skull (|o } midsagittal goes straight through nose
what order do the meninges go (closest to skull to furthest)
dura, arachnoid, pia
dap
what's another name for the midbrain
mesencephalon
mesasoic era...
2 parts of the forebrain
telencephalon
diencephalon
DIe hard TELEvision fan
2 parts of the hindbrain
metencephalon
myelencephalon
reminds me of myelIn and starts with "met"
purpose of the hindbrain
necessary for physiological survival
purpose of the midbrain
necessary for survival of the species
purpose of the forebrain
separates us from other species
parietal lobe
located on top of skull, porcesses somatosensory information (touch, heat, etc)
temporal lobe
located by ear/temple, learning, memory, processes auditory info
temple
occipital lobe
base of brain, processes visual info
Optometrist Occipital
frontal lobe
front of skull (forehead), separates us from other animals, motor information, emotion, etc*****
very important
what does the limbic system do
emotions, reactions
what does the hippocampus do
learning, memory
what does the amygdala do
output for emotional expression such as heart rate, respiration, etc (4 Fs)
what is the ventricular system
4 hollow spaces inside brain containing cerebrospinal fluid that supports weight of brain and helps reduce shock
ventricles
what produces cerebrospinal fluid
choroid plexus- tissue within ventricles
what are the parts of the telencephalon (3) aka lateral ventricles
lateral ventricles, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system
cc, bg, ls
what are the 2 parts of the diencephalon aka 3rd ventricle
thalamus, hypothalamus
what are the parts of the mesencephalon aka midbrain
aka cerebral aqueduct, tectum & tegmentum
t & t
2 parts of the metencephalon aka 4th ventricle
pons and cerebellum
part of the myelencephalon
medulla, (reticular formation) - keeps us physiologically alive
why are alligators so ornery?
what is a sulcus?
folded brain tissue- small groove
what is a fissure?
larger grooves in brain
what is a gyrus?
surface between fissues/sulci, the bumps of the brain
where is the longitudinal fissure?
separates the hemispheres
where is the lateral fissure?
on the side of the brain, one on each side
where is the central fissure?
separates cortex <(|)
what does the corpus callosum do?
brudges the hemispheres
what does the PREcentral gyrus do?
aka primary motor strip - movement when stimulated
what does the POSTcentral gyrus do?
aka primary somatosensory cortex - sensation when stimulated
sssscentral sssssensation/ssssomatossssensory
what does the frontal lobe do BESIDES motor area?
abstract thought, regulate movements, make decisions
what disease is caused by a degeneration of some of the parts of the BASAL GANGLIA
Parkinson's is caused by the degeneration of the dopamine neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen
3 parts of the basal ganglia
-caudate nucleus
-globus pallidus
-putamen
what does the thalamus do?
relay station for sensory info
what does the hypothalamus do?
controls the autonomic nervous system, hormonal controls - 4 Fs
2 parts of tegmentum
-periaqueductal gray matter
-substancia nigra
2 colors
2 parts of tectum and function
-superior colliculi - vision
-inferior colliculi - hearing
see, hear
what does cerebellum mean and what does it do
"little brain" - fine motor coordination
what does the pons do
pathway, allows important connections to pass through
how many cervical and where
top of spine, 7
how many thoracic
12
how many lumbar
5
the names of the 2 fused spinal structures
coccyx, sacral
what does the dorsal root do?
spinal root that contains incoming (afferent) sensory fibers
what does the ventral root do?
spinal root containing outgoing (efferent) motor fibers
what does the central nervous system include
brain, spinal cord
2
what are the divisions in the peripheral nervous system
somatic, autonomic (sympathetic, parasympathetic)
2 main, 2 branches
what does the sympathetic autonomic system do
arousal
what does the parasympathetic autonomic system do
calming
what is phagocytosis
cells that engulf dead neurons
what are the types of cells that make myelin in the cns and pns
oligodendrocytes in the pns, schwann cells in cns
afferent neurons are..
sensory
interneurons do what?
relay messages between sensory and motor neurons
efferent neurons are...
motor
what is the history of neuron doctrine?
nervous system is made up of discrete cells called neurons
simple
at rest, the inside of a cell is ____ compared to outside
negative
what is diffusion
movement of molecules to areas of low concentration from areas of higher concentration
what is electrostatic pressure
"opposites attract" - attractive force between atomic particles charged with opposite signs or the repulsive force between 2 atomic particles charged with same sign
what is exocytosis
when the vesicles migrate, fuse, and deposit contents into synaptic cleft
what is an epsp?
exitatory postsynaptic potential - depolarization (more positive)
what is an ipsp?
inhibitory postsynaptic potential - hyperpolarization (more negative)
what are the levels of sodium like inside and outside the cell
inside- low, outside- high
what are the levels of chloride in the cell
inside- low, outside- high
what are the levels of potassium in the cell
inside- high, outside- low
what is a neuromodulator?
a neurochemical that is slower than a neurotransmitter, long lasting
what does an autoreceptor do?
regulates release of neurotransmitter and stimulates creation of it
what is the difference between spatial and temporal summation?
spatial just adds together to cancel each other out, temporal means two successive are stronger than two further apart
what is synaptic integration?
adding up epsps and ipsps to decide whether or not to fire
what is an agonist?
binds to receptor to activate it
what is an antagonist?
binds to receptor but simply blocks it
what is plasticity?
consistent changes in behavior can create long lasting changes in physiology of organism
who was first to believe brain was involved in sensation and intelligence?
hippocrates
does physiological psych favor monism or dualism
monism- mind and body are one
what were the early nerve theories?
1st - water
2nd - electrical
What did Bell and Magendie discover?
separate nerves for sensation and movement
what was Muller's doctrine of specific nerve energies?
all neurons say excite or inhibit but what is sent is determined by where the neuron is
what did Hemholtz discover?
neurons communicate with chemicals
Where did localization of function begin?
Gall - phrenology
My Girl
What did Florens discover?
through brain ablations, observed localization of function, no localization in cortex