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174 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absolute zero
The temperature at which the atoms of a substance have their minimum kinetic engery
absorption spectrum
continuous spectrum interupted by dark lines or bands
study of the properties of sound, especially its transmision
additive primary colors
colors of light- red,blue,and green. when added will produce any color of the spectrum
alpha particle
nucleus of a helium atom which consists of two neutrons and two protons, ejeted by certain radioactive nuclei
alternating current (ac)
electric current that rapidly reverses in direction
flow of 6.25x10 to the 18th electrons per second
angle of incidence
angle between an incident ray and the normal to the surface it encounters
angle of reflection
angle between a reflected ray and the normal surface at which it is refracted
angle of refraction
angle between a refracted ray and the normal to the surface at which it is refracted
any part of a standing wave with maximum displacement and maximum energy
smallest particle of an element that has all the element's chemical properties
atomic mass
the average of the masses of the existing isotopes of an element
mass number
the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in an atom
atomic number
number of protons in an atom's nucleus
Avogadro's number
(1 Mole) 6.02x10 to the 23 power)
beta particle
electron emmited during radioactive decay of certain neutron
change from liquid to gas occurring beneath the surface of the liquid; rapid vaporization
unit of heat. one calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 Celsius degree
Celsius Scale
temperature scale that assigns 0 to the melt-freeze point for water and 100 to the boil-condense point of water at standard pressure
chain reaction
self-sustaining reaction that, once started steadily provides the energy and matter necessary to continue the reaction
charging by contact
Transfer of electric charge between objects by rubbing or simple touching
charging by induction
redistribution of electric charges in and on objects caused by the electrical influence of a charged object close by but not in contact
any complete path along which electric charge can flow
circuit breaker
device in an electric circuit that breaks the circuit when the current gets high enough to risk causing a fire
chemical substance made of atoms of two or more different elements combined in a fixed proportion
In soud, the region of increased pressure in a longitudinal wave.
concave mirror
mirror that curves inward like a "cave"
change of phase of a gas into a liquid
from one material to another when the two are in direct contact
material through which heat can be transferred;through which electric charge can flow
constructive interference
combination of waves so that two or more waves overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude
means of heat transfer by movement of the heated substance itself, such as by currents in a fluid
convex mirror
mirror that curves outward
part of a wave where the disturbance is highest at greatest
critical mass
minimum mass of fissionable material in a nuclear reactor or nuclear bomb that will sustain a chain reaction
particle accelerator
de Broglie matter waves
all particles have wave properties
destructive interference
combination of waves so that crest parts of one wave overlap trough parts of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude
isotope of hydrogen whose atom has a proton, a neutron, and an electron... has more mass
bending of light that passes around an obstacle or through a norrow slit
direct current (dc)
Electric current whose flow of charge is always in one direction
Doppler Effect
change in frequency of a wave of sound or light due to the motion of the source or the receiver
electric charge
fundamental electrical property to which the mutual attractions or repulsions between electrons or protons is attributed
electric current
flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another
electric field
force field that fills the space around every electric charge or group of charges
electric potential
electric potential energy(joules)per unit of charge (in coulombs) at the location in an electric field.. messured in volts
electric potential energy
energy a charge has due to its location in an electric field
electrical force
force that one charge exerts on another
electrical resistance
resistance of a material to the flow of electric charge through it; measured in ohms
terminal through which electric current can pass
study of moving electric charge
em induction
inducing a voltage in a conductor by changing the magnetic field near the conductor
electromagnetic radiation
transfer of frequenciesover which electromagnetic radiation can be propagated
electromotive force (emf)
any voltage that gives rise to an electric current
study of electric charges at rest
substance composed of atoms that all hae the same atomic number and, therefore, the same chemical properties
elementary particles
subatomic particles
change of phase from liquid to gas that takes place at the surface of a liquid
process of boosting one or more electrons in an atom or molecule from a lower to a higher energy level
Fahrenheit scale
32 is the melt-freeze point of water, 212 is the boil-condense point of water
change in phase from liquid to solid; the opposite of melting
number of vibratios or the number of crests that passs a particular point per unit of time. It is measured in hertz
device in an electric circuit that breaks the circuit when the current gets high enough to risk cauing a fire
instrument used to detect electric current
gamma ray
high-frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by atomic nuclei
molecules fill whatever space is available to them, taking no definate shape
machine that produces electric current, usually by rotating a coil within a stationary magnetic field
allowing charges to move freely along a connection from a conductor to the ground
elements in the same column of the periodic table
time required for half the atoms of a radioactive isotope of an element to decay
heat of fusion
amount of energy that must be added to a kilogram of a solid to melt it
heat of vaporization
amount of energy that must be added to a kilogram of liquid to vaporize it
Si unit of frequency
charging of an object without direct contact
em waves of frequencies lower than the red of visible light
sound frequencies below 20 hertz, the normal lower limit of human hearing
electric circuit that are connectred at two points
material that is a poot conductor of heat and that delays the transfer of heat. Also, it is the material that is a poor conductor of electricity
atom (or ground of atoms bound together) with a net electric charge, which is due to the loss or gain of electrons
process of adding or removing electrons to or from the atomic nucleus
atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons buut different numbers of neutrons
Kelvin Scale
absolute zero is the temperature at which it is impossible to extract any more internal energy from a material.
amount of energy consumed in 1 hour at the rate of 1 kilowatt
light with all waves of the same frequency, phase, and direction
visible part of em spectrum
phase of matter between the solid and gaseous phases in which the matter possesses a definite volume but no definite shape
longitudinal wave
wave in which the individual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth in the direction in which the wave travels
any object that has magnetic properties, that is the ablility to attract objects made of iron or other magnetic substances
magnetic domain
microscopic cluster of atoms with their magnetic fields aligned
magnetic field
region of magnetic influence around a magnetic pole or a moving charged particle
magnetic monopole
hypothetical particle having a single north or a single outh magnetic pole
change in phase from solid to liquid
electromagnetic waves with frequencies great than radio waves but less than infrared waves.
substances mixed together without combining chemically
two or more atoms of the same or different elements bonded to form a larger particle
electrically neutral particle that is one of the two kinds of nucleons that compose an atomic nucleus
right angles to, or perpendicular to
nuclear fission
splitting of an atomic nucleus.
a neutron or a proton
positively charged center of an atom
si unit of electrical resistance
materials that absorbe light without re-emission and do not allow light through them
parallel circuit
two or more devices connected in such a way that the same voltage act across each one
periodic table
lists elements by atomic number and by electron arrangements, so that elements with similar chemical properties
photoelectric effect
ejection of electrons from certain metals when exposed to certain frequencies of light
highness or lowness of a tone related to the frequency of the tone
Planck's constant (h)
multiplied by the frequency of radiation gives the energy of a photon. h=6.6 x 10 to the -34 power joule per second
plane mirror
flat surfaced mirror
aligning of vibrations in tranverse wave
potential difference
triangular solid of a transparent material such as glass that seperates incident light by refraction
positively charged particle that is one of the two kinds of nucleons in the nucleus of an atom
quantum mechanics
branch of physics concerned with the atomic microworld based on wave functions and probabilities
energy transmitted by em waves
atom having an unstable nucleus that can spontaneously emit a particle and become the nucleus of another element
process of the atomic nucleus that results in the emission of energetic particles
use of radiotherapy as a treatment to kill cancer cells.
region of reduced pressure in a longitudinal wave
return of light rays from a surface
bending of an oblique ray of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another
designed to resist the flow of charge
Schrodinger's wave equation
interprets the wave nature of material particles in terms of probability wave amplitudes
properties of a coductor or an insulator with conditions depending on radioactivity
series circuit
electric circuit with devices connected in such a way that the electric current through each of them is the same
shock wave
cone-shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed
phase of matter characterized by definite volume and shape
longitudinal wave of successive compressions and rarefactions
sound barrier
pile up of sound waves in front of an aircraft approaching or reaching the speed of sound
standing wave
stationary wave pattern formed in a medium when two sets of identical waves pass through the medium in opposite directions. the wave appears not to be traveling
direct conversion of a substance from the solid to the vapor phase, or vice versa, without passng through the liquid phase
perfect conductor with zero resistance to the flow of electric charge
traveling faster than the speed of sound
measure of the average translational kinetic energy per molecule of a substance
study of heat and its transformation to mechanical energy
device used to measure temperature
device for increasing or decreasing voltage
conversion of one element into an another through a loss or gain in the number of protons
materials that allow light to pass through them in straight lines
transuranic element
element with an atomic number above 92
transverse wave
wave with vibration at right angles to the direction that the wave is traveling
unstable, raioactive isotope of hydrogen whose atom has a prton, two neutrons and an electron
wave where the wave is the lowest or the disturbance is greatest in the opposite direction from a crest
term applied to sound frequencies above the normal upper limit of human hearing
ultraviolet (UV)
em waves of frequencies higher than those of violet light
uncertainty principle
it is not possible to measure exactly both the position and the momentum of a particle at the same time
visable light
electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see
si unit of electric potential
voltage source
device, batter or generator, that provides a potential difference
SI unit of power
A disturbance hat repeats regularly in space "a wiggle in space and time"
wave speed
wave speed = wavelength x frequency
distance between sucessive crest, troughs, or identical parts of a wave
weak force
force within a nucleus that allows for radioactivity
strong force
part of the nuclear force that holds the nucleus together
white light
combination of all colors
X ray
em radiation higher in frequency han ultraviolet
electrical phenomena
em spectrum
range of frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation can be propagated
the energy that flows from one object to another by virtue of difference in temperature
in series
portions of an eletric circuit that are connected in a row sothat the current that goes through one must go through all of them
magnetic pole
one of the refions on a magnet that produces magnetic forces
earths magnetic field
natural frequency
frequency at which an elastic object naturally tends to vibrate if it is distrubed and the disturbing force is removed
any part of a standing wave that remains stationary; a region of minimal or zero energy
sound that corresponds to an irregular vibration of the eardrum
nuclear force
attractive force within a nucleus that hjolds neutrons and protons together
nuclear fusion
combining of nuclei of lght atoms
quantum; paquet of energy
radient energy
any energy that is transmitted by radiation. occurs in the form of em waves
radio waves
em waves of the longest frequency