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24 Cards in this Set

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Wave
transfer energy, not matter; created by vibrations
transverse
the medium moves perpendicular to energy; radio, microwaves, infrared
compressional (longitudinal)
medium moves parallel to energy; earthquakes, SOUND
Electromagnetic
can travel through empty space; radio, micro, IR, visible light, UV, x-ray, Gamma
Mechanical
need a medium to travel through
amplitude
distance from normal resting position to the top of the crest or bottom of trough
wavelength
distance between successive parts of a wave; crest to crest or trough to trough
crest
top of the wave
trough
bottom of the wave
node
points along the medium which undergo vibrations between a large positive and negative displacement
compression
opposite of rarefaction
rarefaction
reduction of a medium's density
frequency
Hz=waves/second; as frequency increases, wavelength decreases
pitch
describes frequency of sound waves; human hearing= 20Hz-20000Hz
loudness
depends on amplitude; bigger amplitude, louder sound
hertz
unit for frequency; waves/second
speed of sound
300 m/s
speed of light
3 E 8 m/s
destructive interference
when the crest of one wave meets up with the trough of another they cancel each other out
constructive interference
when the crest of one wave meets up with the crest of another wave the amplitude of the resulting wave will be the sum of the two
resonance
occurs when the forced vibration is at an objects natural frequency (breaking a glass with a voice)
beats
created by constructive and destructive interferences; periods of sounds followed by soft sounds; when 2 waves of different frequencies interfere with one another
Doppler effect
relative motion creates a change in frequency when the object creating the sound and the observer are moving farther apart the pitch is lower, when the object creating the sound and the observer are moving closer together the pitch is higher
sonic boom
when the object creating a sound moves faster than the sound waves it's creating the compressions constructively interfere and create a "wall" of sound heard as a "boom" when the sound passes an observer