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### 78 Cards in this Set

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 that which tends to change the state or motion of an object force SI unit of force newton (N) force that will accelerate one kilogram one meter per second one newton (1 N) SI unit of pressure pascal (Pa) pressure of one newton acting over one square meter one pascal (1 Pa) approximate atmospheric pressure at sea level 1 bar 100 kPa 760 mmHg 760 Torr 14.5 psi 1 atm 1033 cm H2O relationship of pressure to force P = f/a where P = pressure f = force a = area type of flow in which fluid has no eddies or turbulence laminar where laminar flow through a tube is fastest center of tube required to drive fluid through a tube pressure differential Hagen-Poiseuille equation Q = (π P d^4) / (128 η l) where Q = flow π = 3.14... P = pressure d^4 = tube diameter raised to the 4th power η = viscosity l = tube length equation which describes the effect of pressure, tube length/diameter, and viscosity on laminar flow Hagen-Poiseuille equation index which estimates the onset of turbulent flow Reynolds number (cutoff is 2000) Reynolds number equation Reynolds number = vρd/η where v = linear velocity ρ = density d = tube diameter η = viscosity a decrease in this fluid property decreases the tendency toward turbulent flow density in laminar flow, as this fluid property decreases, flow increases viscosity type of flow usual in lower respiratory tract laminar type of flow usual in upper respiratory tract turbulent Laplace's law for sphere P = 2 X T / r where P = pressure T = surface tension r = radius its presence results in surface tension increases as alveoli distend and decreases as alveoli contract surfactant fall of pressure at a constriction in a tube Bernoulli effect tube which takes advantage of Bernoulli effect to entrain gases or nebulize liquids Venturi tube tendency of stream of fluid or gas to continue to flow along a convex surface Coanda effect states that at constant temperature the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure Boyle's Law Boyle's Law equation P ∝ 1/V where P = pressure V = volume states that at constant pressure the volume of a given mass of gas varies directly with the temperature Charles' Law Charles' Law equation V ∝ T where V = volume T = temperature states that at constant volume the pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the temperature Third Perfect Gas Law OR Gay Lussac's Law Third Perfect Gas Law equation P ∝ T where P = pressure T = temperature a change in the volume and pressure of the contents of a system without exchange of heat between the system and its surroundings adiabatic change states that in a mixture of gases the pressure exerted by each gas is the same as that which it would exert if it alone occupied the container Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules Avogadro's hypothesis Avogadro's number 6.022 X 10^23 Universal Gas Constant equation PV = nRT where P = pressure V = volume n = moles R = constant T = temperature temperature above which a gas cannot be liquified however much pressure is applied critical temperature vapor pressure of a substance at its critical temperature critical pressure critical temperature at which a gas mixture may separate into its constituents pseudocritical temperature process in which the rate of change of a quantity at any time is proportional to the quantity at that time exponential process the time a process would have been complete had the initial rate of change continued time constant relationship of time constant to half-life half-life = time constant X 0.693 partial pressure of a vapor in a closed container and at equilibrium with the liquid phase vapor pressure states that at a particular temperature the amount of a gas dissolved in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in equilibrium with the liquid Henry's Law the volume of a gas which dissolves in one unit volume of a liquid at the temperature concerned Ostwald solubility coefficient the ratio of the amount of substance present in one phase compared with another the two phases being of equal volume and in equilibrium partition coefficient another word for partial pressure for gases in a solution tension a substance in its gaseous phase above its critical temperature a gas a substance in its gaseous phase below its critical temperature a vapor Dalton's Law equation Pmixture = P1 + P2 + P3... fall of alveolar oxygen concentration as a result of the dilution of alveolar oxygen by excretion of nitrous oxide diffusion hypoxia increase in concentration (partial pressure) of a gas in the alveoli when a more soluble gas diffuses quickly into the bloodstream - results in increased rate of diffusion for the second gas second gas effect point at which 50% of patients cease to move in response to a stimulus MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) rate of diffusion of a substance across a surface or membrane is proportional to the concentration gradient Fick's Law states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight Graham's Law states that depression or reduction of vapor pressure of a solvent is proportional to the molar concentration of the solute Raoult's Law a mixture which vaporizes in the same proportions as the volume concentrations of the components in solution azeotrope pathway with length greater than width tube pathway with width greater than length orifice point at which increased pressure results in turbulent flow but below which flow is laminar critical point variable orifice flowmeter Thorpe tube contributors to body pH according to Stewart 1) partial pressure of CO2 2) strong ion difference 3) total weak acids strong ions according to Stewart K, Na, Cl, lactate weak acids according to Stewart albumin, phosphate effect of decreasing the strong ion difference on body pH according to Stewart decreases pH property of He which makes it useful for decreasing resistance to flow through narrowed lower airways low density force per area of molecules in a liquid as they interface with the gas above it vapor pressure a compressed gas is any mixture or material having in a container at least one of these 1) >104 psia @ 130F 2) >40 psia @ 70F 3) >40 psia @ 100F for any liquid flammable material to determine time left on a cylinder of nitrous oxide, you must determine the volume of gas available from both... the liquid phase and the vapor phase unit of measure for osmotic activity osmole 6.02 X 10^23 particles of dissolved solute that cannot diffuse through a semipermeable membrane 1 osmole pressure exerted by 1 gmw of a nonionizing, nondiffusible solute in 22.4L of water 1 atm pressure exerted by 1gmw of a monovalent, ionizing, nondiffusible solute in 22.4L of water 2 atm states that even in isolation from the environment, a gas cools when expanded and warms when compressed Poisson adiabatic equation Which of the following does NOT affect rate of laminar flow? pressure gradient, fluid viscosity, tube length, fluid density, tube diameter fluid density At low rates of flow, the orifice of a variable orifice flowmeter is more like what? a tube tendency toward turbulence increases when this fluid property is increased density tendency toward turbulence decreases when this fluid property is increased viscosity As tube diameter is doubled, rate of flow _________ by a factor of _____. increases, 16 As tube length is halved, rate of flow ____________ by a factor of _____. increases, 2