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78 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
that which tends to change the state or motion of an object

force


SI unit of force

newton (N)


force that will accelerate one kilogram one meter per second

one newton (1 N)


SI unit of pressure

pascal (Pa)


pressure of one newton acting over one square meter

one pascal (1 Pa)


approximate atmospheric pressure at sea level

1 bar
100 kPa 760 mmHg 760 Torr 14.5 psi 1 atm 1033 cm H2O 

relationship of pressure to force

P = f/a
where P = pressure f = force a = area 

type of flow in which fluid has no eddies or turbulence

laminar


where laminar flow through a tube is fastest

center of tube


required to drive fluid through a tube

pressure differential


HagenPoiseuille equation

Q = (π P d^4) / (128 η l)
where Q = flow π = 3.14... P = pressure d^4 = tube diameter raised to the 4th power η = viscosity l = tube length 

equation which describes the effect of pressure, tube length/diameter, and viscosity on laminar flow

HagenPoiseuille equation


index which estimates the onset of turbulent flow

Reynolds number (cutoff is 2000)


Reynolds number equation

Reynolds number = vρd/η
where v = linear velocity ρ = density d = tube diameter η = viscosity 

a decrease in this fluid property decreases the tendency toward turbulent flow

density


in laminar flow, as this fluid property decreases, flow increases

viscosity


type of flow usual in lower respiratory tract

laminar


type of flow usual in upper respiratory tract

turbulent


Laplace's law for sphere

P = 2 X T / r
where P = pressure T = surface tension r = radius 

its presence results in surface tension increases as alveoli distend and decreases as alveoli contract

surfactant


fall of pressure at a constriction in a tube

Bernoulli effect


tube which takes advantage of Bernoulli effect to entrain gases or nebulize liquids

Venturi tube


tendency of stream of fluid or gas to continue to flow along a convex surface

Coanda effect


states that at constant temperature the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure

Boyle's Law


Boyle's Law equation

P ∝ 1/V
where P = pressure V = volume 

states that at constant pressure the volume of a given mass of gas varies directly with the temperature

Charles' Law


Charles' Law equation

V ∝ T
where V = volume T = temperature 

states that at constant volume the pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the temperature

Third Perfect Gas Law
OR Gay Lussac's Law 

Third Perfect Gas Law equation

P ∝ T
where P = pressure T = temperature 

a change in the volume and pressure of the contents of a system without exchange of heat between the system and its surroundings

adiabatic change


states that in a mixture of gases the pressure exerted by each gas is the same as that which it would exert if it alone occupied the container

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures


states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules

Avogadro's hypothesis


Avogadro's number

6.022 X 10^23


Universal Gas Constant equation

PV = nRT
where P = pressure V = volume n = moles R = constant T = temperature 

temperature above which a gas cannot be liquified however much pressure is applied

critical temperature


vapor pressure of a substance at its critical temperature

critical pressure


critical temperature at which a gas mixture may separate into its constituents

pseudocritical temperature


process in which the rate of change of a quantity at any time is proportional to the quantity at that time

exponential process


the time a process would have been complete had the initial rate of change continued

time constant


relationship of time constant to halflife

halflife = time constant X 0.693


partial pressure of a vapor in a closed container and at equilibrium with the liquid phase

vapor pressure


states that at a particular temperature the amount of a gas dissolved in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in equilibrium with the liquid

Henry's Law


the volume of a gas which dissolves in one unit volume of a liquid at the temperature concerned

Ostwald solubility coefficient


the ratio of the amount of substance present in one phase compared with another the two phases being of equal volume and in equilibrium

partition coefficient


another word for partial pressure for gases in a solution

tension


a substance in its gaseous phase above its critical temperature

a gas


a substance in its gaseous phase below its critical temperature

a vapor


Dalton's Law equation

Pmixture = P1 + P2 + P3...


fall of alveolar oxygen concentration as a result of the dilution of alveolar oxygen by excretion of nitrous oxide

diffusion hypoxia


increase in concentration (partial pressure) of a gas in the alveoli when a more soluble gas diffuses quickly into the bloodstream  results in increased rate of diffusion for the second gas

second gas effect


point at which 50% of patients cease to move in response to a stimulus

MAC (minimum alveolar concentration)


rate of diffusion of a substance across a surface or membrane is proportional to the concentration gradient

Fick's Law


states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight

Graham's Law


states that depression or reduction of vapor pressure of a solvent is proportional to the molar concentration of the solute

Raoult's Law


a mixture which vaporizes in the same proportions as the volume concentrations of the components in solution

azeotrope


pathway with length greater than width

tube


pathway with width greater than length

orifice


point at which increased pressure results in turbulent flow but below which flow is laminar

critical point


variable orifice flowmeter

Thorpe tube


contributors to body pH according to Stewart

1) partial pressure of CO2
2) strong ion difference 3) total weak acids 

strong ions according to Stewart

K, Na, Cl, lactate


weak acids according to Stewart

albumin, phosphate


effect of decreasing the strong ion difference on body pH according to Stewart

decreases pH


property of He which makes it useful for decreasing resistance to flow through narrowed lower airways

low density


force per area of molecules in a liquid as they interface with the gas above it

vapor pressure


a compressed gas is any mixture or material having in a container at least one of these

1) >104 psia @ 130F
2) >40 psia @ 70F 3) >40 psia @ 100F for any liquid flammable material 

to determine time left on a cylinder of nitrous oxide, you must determine the volume of gas available from both...

the liquid phase and the vapor phase


unit of measure for osmotic activity

osmole


6.02 X 10^23 particles of dissolved solute that cannot diffuse through a semipermeable membrane

1 osmole


pressure exerted by 1 gmw of a nonionizing, nondiffusible solute in 22.4L of water

1 atm


pressure exerted by 1gmw of a monovalent, ionizing, nondiffusible solute in 22.4L of water

2 atm


states that even in isolation from the environment, a gas cools when expanded and warms when compressed

Poisson adiabatic equation


Which of the following does NOT affect rate of laminar flow? pressure gradient, fluid viscosity, tube length, fluid density, tube diameter

fluid density


At low rates of flow, the orifice of a variable orifice flowmeter is more like what?

a tube


tendency toward turbulence increases when this fluid property is increased

density


tendency toward turbulence decreases when this fluid property is increased

viscosity


As tube diameter is doubled, rate of flow _________ by a factor of _____.

increases, 16


As tube length is halved, rate of flow ____________ by a factor of _____.

increases, 2
