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162 Cards in this Set

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Can provide an decrease in gas density & an increase in gas flow
Heliox gas mixture
Law that states the rate of gas diffusion is inversely proportional to the weight of gas.
Grahams Law

increase rate=decrease weight=increase solubility
barometric pressure in denver?
630 mmHg
barometric pressure at sealevel?
760 mmHg
TEMP CONVERSION

Kelvin to Celsius
C= K-273
TEMP CONVERSION

Celsius to Kelvin
K = C + 273
TEMP CONVERSION

Celsius to Fahrenheit
F= [9/5(C)]+32
TEMP CONVERSION

Fahrenheit to Celsius
C= 5/9(F-32)
def.

motion, heat, capacity to do work
Energy
formula

Force X distance
Work
2 forms of energy
potential energy
kinetic
def
positioning with potential for kinetic energy
potential energy
kinetic
motion
3 states of matter
solid,liquid,gas
def.
matter cannot be created or destroyed,but can be changed from one form to another
conservation of energy
def.

amount of matter
Mass
density X volume
Mass
def.
gravitational attraction between earth and matter
Weight
def.
ratio of mass to volume
Density
mass/volume
Density
the air we breath has what percent oxygen and nitrogen?
21% oxygen
79% nitrogen
what is the percentage of oxygen in the air at 10,000 feet?
21%

21% everywhere
def.
force per unit of area
pressure
formula

F/A or force/area
pressure
smaller area would result in more or less pressure??

hint: high heel vs flat shoe
more
def
pressure in room
ambient
barometric pressure measures?
atmospheric pressure
heat makes molecules move faster or slower??
faster
def
the point where there is the minimum possible total energy
absolute zero
Transfer of thermal energy occurs by?(3)
convection,conduction,radiation
transfer of energy cause by motion of molecules (heat moving from high heat to low heat)
convection
tranfer of energy from molecule to molecule
conduction

(metals have high conduction properties)
transfer of energy: emission of heat without movement
radiation
which take up more room liquids or gas? and why?
gas, because molecules of gas are further apart than a liquid (less dense then liquid)
what are not bound together by forces at all but fly freely in space?
molecules of gas
1 psi = __ mmHg=__cmH2O
52 mmHg=70 cmH2O
mmHg stands for?
milimeters of mercury
it is a unit of pressure
cmH2O stands for?
centimeters of water
def
determining pressures during mechanical ventilation or in water supply networks
centimeters of water
torr is?
unit of pressure
1mmHg=__cmH2O
1.36
they exert forces on each other only when they collide?
gas molecules
when they collide they bounce from each other & continue freely until next collision?
gas molecules
gases consist of molecules in continuous random motion
Kinetic Theory of Gases
it is assumed the vol of the molecules is negligible compared to the vol of the container
Kinetic Theory of Gases
collisions between molecules are elastic and have no transference of energy
Kinetic theory of gases
the kinetic activity of the molecules is directly proportional to the temp
Kinetic theory of gases
increase kinetic activity will result in an ______in the velocity of particles resulting in an _______ in the pressure of the container?? increase or decrease
increase and increase
will travel in a straight path till they collide
gas molecules
haphazard irregular motion that never ceases
brownian movement
barometic pressue is messured by??
a barometer
vol of different gases contain the same # of particles if both gases are the same temp and pressure
Avagado's Law
________in gas density,increase in gas flow
decrease (helium oxygen density
rate at which pressure moves from an area of greater pressure to an area of lower pressure
pressure gradient
greater pressure=greater____activity
kinetic
rate of gas flow factors: (2)
difference of pressure, size of openings between two areas
this law can be used to predict specific changes of temp, pressure and vol
Ideal gas law
P1xV1/T1=P2xV2/T2
Ideal gas law
temp remains constant, pressure will vary inversely to volume?
Boyles Law
is boyles law direct or inverse?
inverse
P1xV1=P2xV2
BOYLES LAW OF TEMP
BOYLES LAW OF TEMP

formula reminder
boyle potatoes & veggies for 1, boyle potatoes & veggies for 2
pressure remains constant, volume and temp will vary directly
Charles Law
V1/T1=V2/T2
Charles Law
Charles Law reminder sayings
sounds like charo

charo pressure, pressure,pressure

charo was on TV
volume remains constant, pressure and temperature will vary directly
Gay-Lussac's Law
P1/T1=P2/T2
Gay-Lussac's Law
Gay-Lussac's Law reminder
grocery sac has same volume

don't forget the Toliet Paper
The pressure of any gas mixture is equal to the sum of pressure exerted by the individual gases
Dalton's Law
100% total=P1+P2+P3......
Daltons Law
Dalton reminder
dAltons law

A=Arithetic Add All the partial pressure =100%
3 questions to solve gas law problems
what's constant? Do I need to convert to Kelvin? Are my units the same?
the cross sectional area of a tube thru which a fluid is flowing & velocity of the flowing fluid when the flow rate is constant
Law of Continuity
cross sectional area and velocity are inversely related
Law of Continuity
distance/time
velocity
as the cross sectional area decreases for a given flow rate the velocity of the flowing gas increases & vice versa
Law of Continuity
A1xV1=A2xV2

A=cross sectional Area of the tube
V=average velocity of the flowing fluid
Law of Continuity
____the cross sectional area of the tube,____the velocity of the fluid. The flow rate remains_______.
decreasing, increases, constant

Law of continuity
speed with which movement between two points occurs

miles/hrs or cm/sec
Velocity
volume passing a single point per unit of time

liters/min or liters/sec
Flow
velocity will increase with constriction, pressue will drop, decreases pressure on lateral wall
Bernoulli's Principle
the additon of a tube gradually increasing in diameter, not exceeding 15 degrees in the direction of flow from the the jet orfice, will restore the lateral pressure of the gas toward prerestriction pressure.
Venturi Principle
cross sectional change is require to change velocity
Venturi Principle
def.
upward force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced
Buoyancy
volume/time
flow
when a liquid in a small tube tends to move upward againt gravity
capillary action
type of flow:
smooth, even,non tumbling. A cone front
Laminar Flow
type of flow:
resistance & move at a grat velocity than the molecules at the sides
Laminar Flow
type of flow:
rough, tumbling,uneven, blunt front
turbulent flow
type of flow:
all molecules come in contact with the walls of the vessels
turbulent flow
type of flow:
combination of areas of laminar flow & turblent flow
tracheobroncial flow
type of flow:
thought to be the type of low maintence throughout the respiratory system
tracheobroncial flow
used to indicate whether flow through a system is laminar or turbulent
Reynolds Number

lrg# indicates turbulent
sm # indicates lamilar
the content or actual weight of water present in a given volume of gas
Absolute Humidity
how is absolute humidity expressed
terms of the weight of water in the vol of gas
(miligrams per liter (mg/L)
or watervapor pressure (PH2O)
maximum absolute humidity at 37 degrees Celcius which is body temp. What is the water vapor content and partial pressure?
43.8mg/L partial pressure of 47mmHg
Water in the gases state
humidity
behaves similar way to gas molecules. Molecules exert a pressure and are in constarnt random motion
humidity
maximum absolute humidity or capacity
potiential humidity (capacity)
it is the weight of H2O vapor or the PH2O in a saturated gas
potiential humidity
PH2O is?
water vapor pressue
the higher the temp, the___water a volume of gas can hold and the_____PH2O
higher, higher
the content or actual weight of water present in a given vol of gas
absolute humidity (actual)
expressed in terms of the weight in water
absolute humidity (actual)
actual humidity/capacity at temp

AH/PH
relative humidity
comparison of the absolute amt of water a given volume of gas (Absolute humidity) to the amt of water given vol of gas can hold at a given temp (capacity)
relative humidity
when the humidity content equals the capacity the gas is??
Saturated or the Relative Humidity is 100%
used to indicate whether flow through a system is laminar or turbulent
Reynolds Number

lrg# indicates turbulent
sm # indicates lamilar
the content or actual weight of water present in a given volume of gas
Absolute Humidity
how is absolute humidity expressed
terms of the weight of water in the vol of gas
(miligrams per liter (mg/L)
or watervapor pressure (PH2O)
maximum absolute humidity at 37 degrees Celcius which is body temp. What is the water vapor content and partial pressure?
43.8mg/L partial pressure of 47mmHg
Water in the gases state
humidity
behaves similar way to gas molecules. Molecules exert a pressure and are in constarnt random motion
humidity
maximum absolute humidity or capacity
potiential humidity (capacity)
it is the weight of H2O vapor or the PH2O in a saturated gas
potiential humidity
PH2O is?
water vapor pressue
the higher the temp, the___water a volume of gas can hold and the_____PH2O
higher, higher
the content or actual weight of water present in a given vol of gas
absolute humidity (actual)
expressed in terms of the weight in water
absolute humidity (actual)
actual humidity/capacity at temp

AH/PH
relative humidity
comparison of athe actual or absolute amt of water a given vol of gas (Absolute humidity) to the amt of water given vol of gas can hold at a given temp (capacity)
relative humidity
when the humidity content equals the capacity the gas is??
Saturated or the Relative Humidity is 100%
content/capacity @ 37 C
body humidity percentage
the difference between the inspired absolute humidity and the water vapor content in alveoloar air
humidity deficit
the difference between inspired airs water content and the water content of a gas at body temp and pressure
humidity deficit
PAO2?
partial pressure of oxygen
the > the mass & velocity of a prticle the > the inertia tha keepts the particle in motion
inertial impaction
happens w/ particles 5 micrometers & larger(not likely to make it past the upper airway anyway) & for particles less than 1 micrometer (so small that they will probably just be exhaled)
inertial impaction
turbulent flow, complex passageways,bifurcation of the airways & high inspiratory flows increase th impaction of particles larger than 2 micrometers in the larger airways
inertial impaction
occurs when aerosol particles settle out of suspension because of gravity
Gravitational sedimentation
the > the mass of the particle , the faster it settles
Gravitational sedimentation
physical processes where molecules move from area of high concentration to area of lower concentration
Diffusion
kenetic energy is the driving force behind this??
Diffusion
rate of diffusion is directly proportional to...
concentration (or pressure),gradent, the cross sectional area aval. for diffusion and temp
rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to...
the distance the particle must travel & to the molecular weight of the particle
increase gradient, increase area, increase temp =
increase rate of diffusion
particles suspended in air
aerosol therapy
humidify inspired gas, deliver medications & or improve mobilization & thus elimination of secretions
goal of aerosol therapy
(Pb mmHg-47mmHg)X FIO2 - PaCO2 X 1.25
Alveolar air equation
states that the rate of gas transfer across a sheet of tissue is directly proportional (or corresponding) to the surface area of the tissue, to the diffusion constants,& to the difference in partial pressure of gas between the two sides of tissue,& is inversly proportional to the thickness of the tissue
Ficks Law
increase rate = increased area
Ficks Law
increased rate = increased gradient
Ficks Law
the rate of change with respect to distance of a variable quantity, as temperature or pressure, in the direction of maximum change.
gradient
decrease rate = thickness of aveolar capillary membrane
Ficks Law
the amt of a gas that dissolves in a liquid at a given temp is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.
Henry's Law
corresponding
proportional
The amt of that can be dissolved my 1 mL of a given liquid at standard pressure (760mmHg)& a specified temp is known as the "solubilty coefficient" of the liquid
Henry's Law
increase pressure=increase solubility
Henry's Law
reversed in position, order, direction. terms of which an increase in one results in a decrease in another
Inverse
volume/time
flow
area--decreased alveolar surface area, decreases the ability of oxygen to enter teh pulmonary capillary blood
clinical application of ficks law
pressure-- decreased alveolar oxygen pressure reduces the diffusion of oxygen into the pulmonary capillary blood
clinical application of ficks law
thickness--increased alveolar tissue thickness reduces the oxygen across the alveolar capillary membrane
clinical application of ficks law
The injection of fluid into a blood vessel in order to reach an organ or tissues, usually to supply nutrients and oxygen
perfusion
forces that must be overcome to move air: (4)
1.resistance of the airway 2.overcome the elastic forces of the lung tissue 3. tissue resistance 4.surface tension
force exerted by like molecules at the surface of a liquid is called this
surface tension
this law supports the idea that the size of the airway is directly realated to the gas flow & inversely related to the work of breathing
Poiseulles Law
1 psi=52 mmHg=__cmH2O
70 cmH2O
1mmHg=__cmH2O
1.36 cmH2O
the process where matter in it's liquid from is changed into a gas
vaporization
conversion between solid & gas phases without going to liquid state
sublimation (example:dry ice)
body temp in fahrenheit?
98.6 degrees F