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### 48 Cards in this Set

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 mass A property of matter equal to the measure of an object's resistance to changes in either the speed or direction of its motion. The mass of an object is not dependent on gravity and therefore is different from but proportional to its weight. weight a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe volume The amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object or region of space, expressed in cubic units. density The mass per unit volume of a substance at a specified pressure and temperature. inertia the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction force an action exerted on an object which may change the object's state of rest or motion; force has magnitude and direction (vector quantity) velocity A vector quantity whose magnitude is a body's speed and whose direction is the body's direction of motion. speed The rate or a measure of the rate of motion; The magnitude of a velocity. acceleration the rate at which velocity changes over time; an object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change matter Something that has mass and exists as a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. potential energy the energy associated with an object becayse of the position, shape, or condition of the object kinetic energy the energy of an object that is due to the object's motion accuracy a description of how close a measurment is to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured precision the degree of exactness of a measurement deviation The difference, especially the absolute difference, between one number in a set and the mean of the set. scalar quantity has direction only vector quantity has magnitude and direction friction A force that resists the relative motion or tendency to such motion of two bodies in contact. resultant vector that represents the sum of two or more vectors equilibrium in physics, the state in which the net force on an object is zero net force a single force whose external effects on a rigid body are the same as the effects of several actual forces acting on the body simple harmonic motion vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium amplitude the maximum displacement from equilibrium period the time that it takes a complete cycle to occur frequency the number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time medium a physical environment through which a disturbance can travel mechanical wave a wave that requires a medium through which to pass through transverse wave a wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling crest the highest point about the equilibrium position trough the lowest point below the equilibrium position wavelength the distance between two adjacent similar points of a wave, such as froim crest to crest or from trough to trough longitudinal wave a wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling constructive interference a superposition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave destructive interference a superposition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave standing wave a wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere node a point in a stanging wave that maintains zero displacement antinode a point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest displacement occurs compression the region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure are at a maximum rarefraction the region of a longitudinal wave in which the desity and pressure are at a minimum pitch a measure of how high or low a sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave Doppler effect an observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and an observer (named for the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler) intensity the rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave motion decibel a dimensionless unit tht describes the ratio of two intensities of sound; the threshold of hearing is commonly used as the reference intensity resonance a phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system, resulting in a large amplitude of vibration fundamental frequency the lowest frequency of vibration of a standing wave harmonic series a series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and integral multiples of the fundamental frequency timbre the musical quality of a tone resulting form the combination of harmonics present at different intensities beat the periodic variation in the amplitude of a wave that is the superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies