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125 Cards in this Set

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Liquid heated to boiling pt. energy of molecules is transferred to gas phase. In a gas molecules collide w/ e/o. Force is exerted on walls of a container and is defined as pressure
Molecular Theory
Keeping temp constant and decreasing vol of a container the molecules will collide with the walls of the container more frequently. Greater number of collisions the greater the pressure of gas in the container. Halving the vol (V) doubles the absol press (P) 100 -200 kPa V 1/P
PV= constant (k1)
The Gas Laws
states that the product of the volume and pressure of a fixed quantity of an ideal gas is constant, given constant temperature. Expressed mathematically, the formula for Boyle's law is:

· V is volume of the gas.
· p is the pressure of the gas.
· k is a constant
Boyle's Law
pV=K
where:
· V is volume of the gas.
· p is the pressure of the gas.
· k is a constant
Boyle's Law
law is commonly used to predict the result of introducing a change, in volume and pressure only
Boyle's Law
p1v1=p2v2
Boyle's Law
1 ATM = ________Torr
760 Torr
1 PSI = ___ Torr
50 Torr
Gas occupies ___ml at 760 torr
100ml
1 ATM x 5L = __Liter
1Liter
It states that at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in kelvins) increases or decreases.
Charles Law
V/T = k

· V is the volume.
· T is the temperature (measured in kelvins).
· k is a constant.
Charles Law
maintain the constant, k, during heating of a gas at fixed pressure, the volume must increase. Conversely, cooling the gas decreases the volume. The exact value of the constant need not be known to make use of the law in comparison between two volumes of gas at equal pressure:v1/t1=v2/t2
Charles Law
At a constant pressure adding heat
Double temp -> double vol. Due to constant pressure
Vol of gas varies with the temp.
(hot air balloon, autoclave an LMA)
Charles Law
Kelvins = 273 + temp in Celcius
conversion formula to kelvins
P1 + P2 + P3 = P total
Dalton's law of partial pressure
In a mixture of gases the pressure exerted by each gas is the same as that which would exert if it were alone in a container
Dalton's law of partial pressure
PAO2 = FIO2 (PB-47) - (PACO2/0.8)
Alveolar gas equation
1 ATM =___PSI
14.7 PSI
volume held constant, pressure varies directly with temp. P1/T1=P2/T2
Gay-Lussac's Law
volume is held constant temperature, varies directly with pressure.
Gay-Lussac's Law
temperature of a cylinder of compressed gas decreases as gas is released
Gay-Lussac's Law
given a mass of gas at thermal equilibrium P,V and T can be measured ____ Law states temp held constant will vary indirectly with volume
Boyle's Law
If pressure is held constant, as you increase temperature, volume also increases.
Charles Law
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
Temperature = 0 Centigrade
273 Kelvin
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Combined Gas Law
total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is the sum of the individual pressures of its constituents P1 + P2 + P3 = P total
each individual pressure is a partial pressure
one partial pressure is the total pressure times the fractional concentration
Dalton's Law
Arterial oxygen content (CaO2) what is the normal value
17-24 ml/dl
CaO2 = 1.36 x Hgb x SaO2 + (0.003 x PaO2)
Arterial oxygen content
Alveolar Gas Equation
PAO2 = FIO2(PB-47) - (PACO2/0.8)
A-a gradient= age + ___ /4
10
What is the Respiratory quotient (ratio of CO2 production to O2 consumption
-0.8
A-a gradient increases ____ torr for every 10% increase in FIO2
5-6 torr
Determinants of resistance (R) are
viscosity of fluid
-radius of the tube
-length of the tube
What factors cause Turbulent flow ?
inc velocity
-wide to narrow tube
-hi velocity
-bend in tubing
Reynolds number
Blood = 2000
2000
Bernulli -
Inc velocity dec pressure-
venturi effect
Tension= Pressure x Radius
Laplace's Law-
Damage to alvelous is loss of recoil of alveoli,results in _______.
difficult to exhale
fall in pressure in fluid flow thru a tube when the tube narrows due to inc in speed of the stream of fluid
Coanda Effect
pressure gradient across the wall of a sphere = 2XTension/radius
Surface tension
Mean aortic pressure
--------------------
Cardiac output
Peripheral resistance
Change pressure (P) is the difference between the two ends of a tube
Poiseuille's Law
Determinants of resistance
Viscosity, radius, length
Reynolds number =
Flow velocity(vol) x density (P) x diameter (d) divided by viscosity (7)
T = PR
T= tension
P= pressure
R= radius
La Place's Law for a Cylindrical vessel
T= PR/2
La Place's Law for a Spherical vessel
Boyle's Law states gas occupies ____ml @ 760 torr
100ml
V1/T1 = V2/T2

V= Volume T= Temperature
Charles Law Equation:
P1/V1 = P2/V2

P= Pressure V= Volume
Boyle's Law Equation
Pressure is held constant as you increase temperature volume also increases

V1/T1 = V2/T2
Charles' Law
Volume held constant, pressure varies directly with temperature

P1/T1= P2/T2
Gay-Lussac's Law
If volume is held constant, temperature pressure varies directly with pressure
Gay-Lussac's Law
Temperature of a cylinder of compressed gas decreases as gas is released. Because decreased pressure, will result in decreased temperature
Gay-Lussac's Law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Combined Gas Law
A mixture of gas the pressue exerted by each gas is the same as that which would exert if it alone occupied the container
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
The total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is the individual pressures of its constituents P1 + P2 + P3 +..+ = Total
Dalton's Law
Each individual pressure is called a partial pressure
Dalton's Law
One Partial pressure is the total pressure times the fractional concentration
Dalton's Law
The normal Arterial Oxygen Content (CaO2) Normal =
17-24 ml/dl
CaO2 = 1.36 x Hgb x SaO2 + (0.003 x PaO2)
Arterial Oxygen Content equation
Alveolar Gss Equation
PaO2= FiO2
(PB-47)-(PaCO2/0.8)

0.8 = Respiratory Quotient
(Ratio of Co2 production to O2 consumption)
Age + 10/4
A-a Gradient
A-a gradient increases ____torr every 10% increase FIO2
5-6 torr
A-a gradient
If normal a low PaO2 is r/t
hypoventilation
Each volume of gases at STP contain the same number of molecules
Avogadro's Principle
Avogadro's Principle
An N20 full tank is _____kg
3.4 kg
The molecular wt of N20 is ___.
44
PV=nRT
Ideal Gas Law
Ideal Gas Law
An E Cylinder has 2200 psi and _____ liters.
660 liters
1100 psi x 0.3 (for an E tank) = ____liters
330 liters
temperature and pressure rises to rises to levels higher than what observed in Boyle's law
Adiabatic (Constant Heat) Processes
Rapic compression of a gas causes rapid increase in temperature
Transfilling tanks from large to small, causes gas to rapidly expand and rapidly recompress. Dramatic increases in temp. can ignite
Adiabatic (Constant Heat) Processes
When compressed gas is allowed to escape freely into space (rapid expansion) cooling takes place
Adiabatic cooling (Joule- Thompson Effect)
The amount of gas absorbed by a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of gas in contact with the liqid
Henry's Law
Fick's Law of Diffusion
Rate of diffusion of a substance across a unit area is proportional to the concentration gradient?
The rate of diffusion of a gas across a membrane is proportional to the tension grageint.
The rate of diffusion of a gas is lnversly proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. Light gases diffuse quicker than heavier gases.
Graham's law
DOT regulates gas cylinders in the following
maintenenc, handling, transport, storgae, disposal.
Pressure reducing valve on tanks. Consists of metal alloy that melts at temperature of 150-170F
Woods Metal
(consists of metal that melts at 200-220F.
If temp. increases to 150F the _______ melts and allows pressurized gas to escape
Woods metal
Gas Supply Safety Wall Supply DISS =
Diameter Index Safety System (DISS)
DISS consist of the following having designated connector diameters
O2, N2O, Air, N2, and CO2
Prevents attachment of O2 hose to N2O outlet, etc.
Gas Supply Safety Cylinder Supply= PISS
Pin Index Safety System (PISS)
Designates pin positions on yoke/hanger assembly
PISS prevents
Attatchment of air, N2O, O2 from being interchanged.
E Cylinder Specifications
Air Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position
Color: Yellow
PSI: 1900-2200
Vol: 625
Crit Temp -141C
Phys State Gas
PISS 1-5
E Cylinder Specifications
Oxygen Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position
Color: Green
PSI: 1900-2200
Vol: 660
Crit Temp -118C
Phys State Gas
PISS 2-5
E Cylinder Specifications Nitrogen Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position
Color: Black
PSI: 1900-2200
Vol: 610
Crit Temp *****
Phys State Gas
PISS 1-4
E Cylinder Specifications
Helium Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position
Color: Brown
PSI: 1600
Vol: 500
Crit Temp ****
Phys State Gas
PISS
E Cylinder Specifications
Nitrous Oxide Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position
Color: Blue
PSI: 745
Vol: 1590
Crit Temp 36.5C
Phys State Liquid
PISS 3-5
E Cylinder Specifications
Carbon Dioxide Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position
Color: Gray
PSI: 838
Vol: 1590
Crit Temp 30C
Phys State Gas
PISS
Combustible gases: the valve outlet threads are screwed ___ hand
Left hand (counter clockwise to tighten)
Regulators ______ pressure
Step down
last a life span of 4yrs
Gas specific (no interchange)
No Grease or oils
How long will tank (O2 or Air) last? Capacity/Service Pressure of a D tank capacity
400 liters
How long will tank (O2 or Air) last? Capacity/Service Pressure of a E tank capacity
650 Liters
How long will tank (O2 or Air) last? Capacity/Service Pressure of a M tank capacity
3000 Liters
To Determine amount of O2 left in a tank:
Capacity/Service pressure =
remaining liters/current pressure.
Problems with O2/N2) Supply
Pressure loss
Excess Pressure
Connection gas pipelines
Contamination
Leaks
Theft (N2O)
Medical Grade Oxygen
Air (O2 & N) put over a liquid at high pressure and controlled temp range. -> increases solubility of both gases in liquid. Liquid is passed through high intensity magnet.(sep O2 from liquid)
Collected O2 gas is pressurized into containers.
Air Supply: Pipeline Supply
produced at site with compression pumps, dehumidified, not sterile
Air Supply: Cylinder Supply
Air is sterile
Made by blending 02 and N2
O2 = ________ torr
150 torr
less than 21% O2 is a ____mix
hypoxic
A thrope tube is ____ at the bottom
narrow
A thrope tube is _____ at the top of the tube.
wider
At the bottom of a thrope tube the flow is _____.
Laminar Flow r/t by viscosity
Turbulent flow in a thrope tube occurs r/t density once past _______ .
reynolds number
Thrope tubes a different based on ______ of the tubes
density
On the anesthesia machine N2O is what color?
Blue
On the anesthesia machine O2 is what color?
Green
On the anesthesia machine air is what color?
yellow
The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular wt.
Graham's Law
Diffusion of gas through tissues

Diffusion rate =
(P1-P2) (area) (solubility)
---------------------------
(memb thickness) sq root
molecular wt
Fick's Law of Diffusion
Diffusion rate of a gas is directly proportional
Partial pressure gradient
Membrane area
Solubility of gas in membrane
Fick's Law of Diffusion
The rate of transfer of a gas through a sheet of tissue is dependent upon
tissue area
tissue thickness
Concentration gradient
Solubility of the molecules
Molecular size and weight
NO2 is very soluble ___times soluble than Nitrogen
34x
What does NO2 effect the pressure in
Inc pressure ET cuff
Inc pressure in Bowel
Can Perf Tympanic membrane
The rate of diffusion across a membrane for non-gases is dependent on
tissue area
tissue thickness
conc. gradient (for un-ionized)
Electrochemical gradient (ions)
Lipid solubility
Molecular size and weight
Principle of osmosis water goes from ___ to ____
High concentration to low concentration
The temperature above which a substance cannot be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied
Critical Temperature
The pressure (vapor pressure at the critical temperature
Critical pressure
At 40 degrees NO2 is at critical temp and is in a ___state
Gas
If NO2 decreases volume, increases pressure and decreases temp to 36.5 exists in what state?
liquid
If NO2 drops to 20 degrees C becomes a _________.
vapor
A substance above its critical temp
gas
a substance below its critical temp
vapor