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125 Cards in this Set
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Liquid heated to boiling pt. energy of molecules is transferred to gas phase. In a gas molecules collide w/ e/o. Force is exerted on walls of a container and is defined as pressure

Molecular Theory


Keeping temp constant and decreasing vol of a container the molecules will collide with the walls of the container more frequently. Greater number of collisions the greater the pressure of gas in the container. Halving the vol (V) doubles the absol press (P) 100 200 kPa V 1/P
PV= constant (k1) 
The Gas Laws


states that the product of the volume and pressure of a fixed quantity of an ideal gas is constant, given constant temperature. Expressed mathematically, the formula for Boyle's law is:
· V is volume of the gas. · p is the pressure of the gas. · k is a constant 
Boyle's Law


pV=K
where: · V is volume of the gas. · p is the pressure of the gas. · k is a constant 
Boyle's Law


law is commonly used to predict the result of introducing a change, in volume and pressure only

Boyle's Law


p1v1=p2v2

Boyle's Law


1 ATM = ________Torr

760 Torr


1 PSI = ___ Torr

50 Torr


Gas occupies ___ml at 760 torr

100ml


1 ATM x 5L = __Liter

1Liter


It states that at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in kelvins) increases or decreases.

Charles Law


V/T = k
· V is the volume. · T is the temperature (measured in kelvins). · k is a constant. 
Charles Law


maintain the constant, k, during heating of a gas at fixed pressure, the volume must increase. Conversely, cooling the gas decreases the volume. The exact value of the constant need not be known to make use of the law in comparison between two volumes of gas at equal pressure:v1/t1=v2/t2

Charles Law


At a constant pressure adding heat
Double temp > double vol. Due to constant pressure Vol of gas varies with the temp. (hot air balloon, autoclave an LMA) 
Charles Law


Kelvins = 273 + temp in Celcius

conversion formula to kelvins


P1 + P2 + P3 = P total

Dalton's law of partial pressure


In a mixture of gases the pressure exerted by each gas is the same as that which would exert if it were alone in a container

Dalton's law of partial pressure


PAO2 = FIO2 (PB47)  (PACO2/0.8)

Alveolar gas equation


1 ATM =___PSI

14.7 PSI


volume held constant, pressure varies directly with temp. P1/T1=P2/T2

GayLussac's Law


volume is held constant temperature, varies directly with pressure.

GayLussac's Law


temperature of a cylinder of compressed gas decreases as gas is released

GayLussac's Law


given a mass of gas at thermal equilibrium P,V and T can be measured ____ Law states temp held constant will vary indirectly with volume

Boyle's Law


If pressure is held constant, as you increase temperature, volume also increases.

Charles Law


Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

Temperature = 0 Centigrade
273 Kelvin 

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

Combined Gas Law


total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is the sum of the individual pressures of its constituents P1 + P2 + P3 = P total
each individual pressure is a partial pressure one partial pressure is the total pressure times the fractional concentration 
Dalton's Law


Arterial oxygen content (CaO2) what is the normal value

1724 ml/dl


CaO2 = 1.36 x Hgb x SaO2 + (0.003 x PaO2)

Arterial oxygen content


Alveolar Gas Equation

PAO2 = FIO2(PB47)  (PACO2/0.8)


Aa gradient= age + ___ /4

10


What is the Respiratory quotient (ratio of CO2 production to O2 consumption

0.8


Aa gradient increases ____ torr for every 10% increase in FIO2

56 torr


Determinants of resistance (R) are

viscosity of fluid
radius of the tube length of the tube 

What factors cause Turbulent flow ?

inc velocity
wide to narrow tube hi velocity bend in tubing 

Reynolds number
Blood = 2000 
2000


Bernulli 
Inc velocity dec pressure 
venturi effect


Tension= Pressure x Radius

Laplace's Law


Damage to alvelous is loss of recoil of alveoli,results in _______.

difficult to exhale


fall in pressure in fluid flow thru a tube when the tube narrows due to inc in speed of the stream of fluid

Coanda Effect


pressure gradient across the wall of a sphere = 2XTension/radius

Surface tension


Mean aortic pressure
 Cardiac output 
Peripheral resistance


Change pressure (P) is the difference between the two ends of a tube

Poiseuille's Law


Determinants of resistance

Viscosity, radius, length


Reynolds number =

Flow velocity(vol) x density (P) x diameter (d) divided by viscosity (7)


T = PR
T= tension P= pressure R= radius 
La Place's Law for a Cylindrical vessel


T= PR/2

La Place's Law for a Spherical vessel


Boyle's Law states gas occupies ____ml @ 760 torr

100ml


V1/T1 = V2/T2
V= Volume T= Temperature 
Charles Law Equation:


P1/V1 = P2/V2
P= Pressure V= Volume 
Boyle's Law Equation


Pressure is held constant as you increase temperature volume also increases
V1/T1 = V2/T2 
Charles' Law


Volume held constant, pressure varies directly with temperature
P1/T1= P2/T2 
GayLussac's Law


If volume is held constant, temperature pressure varies directly with pressure

GayLussac's Law


Temperature of a cylinder of compressed gas decreases as gas is released. Because decreased pressure, will result in decreased temperature

GayLussac's Law


P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

Combined Gas Law


A mixture of gas the pressue exerted by each gas is the same as that which would exert if it alone occupied the container

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure


The total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is the individual pressures of its constituents P1 + P2 + P3 +..+ = Total

Dalton's Law


Each individual pressure is called a partial pressure

Dalton's Law


One Partial pressure is the total pressure times the fractional concentration

Dalton's Law


The normal Arterial Oxygen Content (CaO2) Normal =

1724 ml/dl


CaO2 = 1.36 x Hgb x SaO2 + (0.003 x PaO2)

Arterial Oxygen Content equation


Alveolar Gss Equation

PaO2= FiO2
(PB47)(PaCO2/0.8) 0.8 = Respiratory Quotient (Ratio of Co2 production to O2 consumption) 

Age + 10/4

Aa Gradient


Aa gradient increases ____torr every 10% increase FIO2

56 torr


Aa gradient
If normal a low PaO2 is r/t 
hypoventilation


Each volume of gases at STP contain the same number of molecules

Avogadro's Principle


Avogadro's Principle
An N20 full tank is _____kg 
3.4 kg


The molecular wt of N20 is ___.

44


PV=nRT

Ideal Gas Law


Ideal Gas Law
An E Cylinder has 2200 psi and _____ liters. 
660 liters


1100 psi x 0.3 (for an E tank) = ____liters

330 liters


temperature and pressure rises to rises to levels higher than what observed in Boyle's law

Adiabatic (Constant Heat) Processes


Rapic compression of a gas causes rapid increase in temperature
Transfilling tanks from large to small, causes gas to rapidly expand and rapidly recompress. Dramatic increases in temp. can ignite 
Adiabatic (Constant Heat) Processes


When compressed gas is allowed to escape freely into space (rapid expansion) cooling takes place

Adiabatic cooling (Joule Thompson Effect)


The amount of gas absorbed by a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of gas in contact with the liqid

Henry's Law


Fick's Law of Diffusion

Rate of diffusion of a substance across a unit area is proportional to the concentration gradient?
The rate of diffusion of a gas across a membrane is proportional to the tension grageint. 

The rate of diffusion of a gas is lnversly proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. Light gases diffuse quicker than heavier gases.

Graham's law


DOT regulates gas cylinders in the following

maintenenc, handling, transport, storgae, disposal.


Pressure reducing valve on tanks. Consists of metal alloy that melts at temperature of 150170F

Woods Metal
(consists of metal that melts at 200220F. 

If temp. increases to 150F the _______ melts and allows pressurized gas to escape

Woods metal


Gas Supply Safety Wall Supply DISS =

Diameter Index Safety System (DISS)


DISS consist of the following having designated connector diameters

O2, N2O, Air, N2, and CO2
Prevents attachment of O2 hose to N2O outlet, etc. 

Gas Supply Safety Cylinder Supply= PISS

Pin Index Safety System (PISS)
Designates pin positions on yoke/hanger assembly 

PISS prevents

Attatchment of air, N2O, O2 from being interchanged.


E Cylinder Specifications
Air Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position 
Color: Yellow
PSI: 19002200 Vol: 625 Crit Temp 141C Phys State Gas PISS 15 

E Cylinder Specifications
Oxygen Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position 
Color: Green
PSI: 19002200 Vol: 660 Crit Temp 118C Phys State Gas PISS 25 

E Cylinder Specifications Nitrogen Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position

Color: Black
PSI: 19002200 Vol: 610 Crit Temp ***** Phys State Gas PISS 14 

E Cylinder Specifications
Helium Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position 
Color: Brown
PSI: 1600 Vol: 500 Crit Temp **** Phys State Gas PISS 

E Cylinder Specifications
Nitrous Oxide Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position 
Color: Blue
PSI: 745 Vol: 1590 Crit Temp 36.5C Phys State Liquid PISS 35 

E Cylinder Specifications
Carbon Dioxide Color, PSI, Volume, Critical Temp, Phys State, PISS Position 
Color: Gray
PSI: 838 Vol: 1590 Crit Temp 30C Phys State Gas PISS 

Combustible gases: the valve outlet threads are screwed ___ hand

Left hand (counter clockwise to tighten)


Regulators ______ pressure

Step down
last a life span of 4yrs Gas specific (no interchange) No Grease or oils 

How long will tank (O2 or Air) last? Capacity/Service Pressure of a D tank capacity

400 liters


How long will tank (O2 or Air) last? Capacity/Service Pressure of a E tank capacity

650 Liters


How long will tank (O2 or Air) last? Capacity/Service Pressure of a M tank capacity

3000 Liters


To Determine amount of O2 left in a tank:

Capacity/Service pressure =
remaining liters/current pressure. 

Problems with O2/N2) Supply

Pressure loss
Excess Pressure Connection gas pipelines Contamination Leaks Theft (N2O) 

Medical Grade Oxygen

Air (O2 & N) put over a liquid at high pressure and controlled temp range. > increases solubility of both gases in liquid. Liquid is passed through high intensity magnet.(sep O2 from liquid)
Collected O2 gas is pressurized into containers. 

Air Supply: Pipeline Supply

produced at site with compression pumps, dehumidified, not sterile


Air Supply: Cylinder Supply

Air is sterile
Made by blending 02 and N2 

O2 = ________ torr

150 torr


less than 21% O2 is a ____mix

hypoxic


A thrope tube is ____ at the bottom

narrow


A thrope tube is _____ at the top of the tube.

wider


At the bottom of a thrope tube the flow is _____.

Laminar Flow r/t by viscosity


Turbulent flow in a thrope tube occurs r/t density once past _______ .

reynolds number


Thrope tubes a different based on ______ of the tubes

density


On the anesthesia machine N2O is what color?

Blue


On the anesthesia machine O2 is what color?

Green


On the anesthesia machine air is what color?

yellow


The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular wt.

Graham's Law


Diffusion of gas through tissues
Diffusion rate = (P1P2) (area) (solubility)  (memb thickness) sq root molecular wt 
Fick's Law of Diffusion


Diffusion rate of a gas is directly proportional
Partial pressure gradient Membrane area Solubility of gas in membrane 
Fick's Law of Diffusion


The rate of transfer of a gas through a sheet of tissue is dependent upon

tissue area
tissue thickness Concentration gradient Solubility of the molecules Molecular size and weight 

NO2 is very soluble ___times soluble than Nitrogen

34x


What does NO2 effect the pressure in

Inc pressure ET cuff
Inc pressure in Bowel Can Perf Tympanic membrane 

The rate of diffusion across a membrane for nongases is dependent on

tissue area
tissue thickness conc. gradient (for unionized) Electrochemical gradient (ions) Lipid solubility Molecular size and weight 

Principle of osmosis water goes from ___ to ____

High concentration to low concentration


The temperature above which a substance cannot be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied

Critical Temperature


The pressure (vapor pressure at the critical temperature

Critical pressure


At 40 degrees NO2 is at critical temp and is in a ___state

Gas


If NO2 decreases volume, increases pressure and decreases temp to 36.5 exists in what state?

liquid


If NO2 drops to 20 degrees C becomes a _________.

vapor


A substance above its critical temp

gas


a substance below its critical temp

vapor
