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### 125 Cards in this Set

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 Accuracy The Extent to which a measured value agrees with the standard value of a quantity. Balance A tool use to measure the weight of something. Calorimeter Device that Isolates objects to measure temperature changes due to heat flow. Data Resulting values collected in an experiment. Degrees A Unit for temperature Dependent Variable Thje Unchange variable in an experiment. Frequency Number of occurerences per unit time. Gamma-rays The result of accelerating charges in the nucleus of an atom. grams The Derivative unit of Mass in the metric system Hypothesis Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption. Independent Variable The variable that is changed in an experiment. Joules The SI unit of energy , work or heat eqaul to one newton-meter. Kilograms The SI unit for Mass meter Stick A tool for measuring length totally equallign one meter. Millimeters The derivative unit for length. Nanometer A derivative unit of length equalling 1 million to the minus nine. Pigment A shade of color or a drop of color. Procedure Steps taken in the conduction of an experiment. Range the horizontal distance a projectile travels. Scientific Notation Numbers expressed in the form M*10^n Thermometer a tool for measuring temperature. Heat Quantity of energy transferred from one object to another as a result of a difference in temperature. Heat Energy Energy That flows as a result of changes in temperature. Heat Transfer The flow of heat either by conduction, convection or radiation. Joules the SI unit of measurement of energy; equivalent to kg-m2/s2. Kinetic Energy the energy of an object in motion. Specific Heat the heat capacity of a substance per unit mass. Temperature a measure of how hot or cold an object is with respect to a reference object. Thermal Equilibrium the state of objects in thermal contact when they no longer change each other's temperature. Amplitude the maximal displacement of an object in simple harmonic motion; the peak-to-peak height of a wave. Angle of Incidence Angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to the surface waves are striking. Angle of Reflection Angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to the surface the waves are reflected from. Angle of refraction ANgle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to the surface the waves have been refracted. Bell jar A jar used to measure a wave property. Concave lens a lens that causes parallel light rays to diverge. Concave Mirror Reflects light from its inner surface Constructive Interference superposition of waves resulting in a combined wave with amplitude larger than the component waves. Convex lens a lens that causes parallel light rays to converge. Convex Mirror a mirror that reflects light from its outer surface. Destructive Interference Superposition of waves resulting in a combined wave with zero amplitude. Doppler effect the change in frequency of a wave produced by a moving source. Approaching sources have a higher frequency, and retreating sources have a lower frequency. Electromagnetic wave Wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that move through space at the speed of light. Energy the ability to do work. Focus the point at which light rays from a mirror or lens intersect. Frequency the number of complete cycles of simple harmonic motion per unit time; the reciprocal of period; the number of wave cycles passing a fixed point per unit time. hertz the SI unit of measurement of frequency; equivalent to s-1. Image Reoroduction of object formed with lenses or mirrors. Image size The magnitude of the image. Incident the first angle in a reflection. Index of refraction an intrinsic property of a transparent substance, which measures the speed of light in the material compared to the speed of light in a vacuum. intensity the amount of energy carried by a wave across a unit area in a unit time. interference The result of the superposition of two or more waves. inverted brought in towards. law of reflection Angle of incidence equal to angle of reflection. law of superposition The displacement of a medium caused by two or more waves is the algebraic sum of the displacements caused by the individual waves. lens An optical device design to converge or diverge light. longitufinal wave a wave in which points on the wave move parallel to the direction of wave propagation. medium The material in which a wave travels. mirror An object that produces a reflection of its image. node A point that is completely undisturbed when two waves combine. Orientation The direction followed in the course of a trend, movement, or development. period the time of one complete cycle of simple harmonic motion; the time for one wave cycle to pass a fixed point. ray diagram a drawing of light rays used to analyze a set of optical devices, such as a lens or mirror. real image. an image produced in an optical device, such as a lens or mirror, that is formed by converging rays. reflection The reproduction of an object by a mirror. refration the bending of light when it passes across the boundary between two media with different indices of refraction. sound A production of the compression and rarefraction of matter. snell's law a ray of light bends in such a way that the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant. speed The ratio of the distance travel to the time interval. speed of light 3.0*10^8m/s in a vacuum. speed of sound 343m/s in air. transverse wave a wave pulse in which points on the wave move perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. tuning fork A device used to find properties of sound. ultraviolet the strongest rays of sunlight. upright An image that doesn't change its original stance. vacuum Open space without air resistance. vibration A rapid linear motion of a particle or of an elastic solid about an equilibrium position. virtual image an image produced in an optical device, such as a lens or mirror, that is formed by the extension of diverging rays. wavelength the distance between identical points in a wave cycle. charge a property of attraction which either holds particles together or keep them apart. charge distribution The sharing of charges either by conduction or induction. charged particle A particle that has either a negative or a positive charge. electric field Property of space around a charged object that causes forces on other charged objects. electrostatic force Forces produced by electric charges. magnitude The size of a quantity. vectors a quantity with magnitude and direction. coil A wire that electricity can flow through. electromagnet A device that that uses electric current to produce a concentrated magnetic field. electromagnetic of relating electromagnets energy transformation. The conversion of energy into different forms by a generator or a motor. Induction the process by which electromotive forces are generated in a circuit due to changes in a magnetic field. magnet a body having the property of attracting iron and producing a magnetic field external to itself; magnetic field intensity The strength of magnetic fields. magnetic forces forces produced by the repelling of magnets. north pole one end of a magnet; the end that attracts the south pole. south pole one end of a magnet; the end that attracts the north pole. battery A device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy consisting of two dissimilar conductors and electrolyte. circuit closed loop arrangement of elements such as capacitors, resistors, inductors, and batteries, through which electrical current flows. current the amount of electric charge passing a point per unit time. dissipitate used up or diminished in some ohter way. electricity the property of an object to restore its shape after deformation. equivalent resistance a single resistance that could replace several resistors. induced Man made, planted. doesn't occur naturally. kinetic energy the energy of an object in motion. mechanical Relating to, produced by, or dominated by physical forces. Ohms the SI unit of measurement of resistance; equivalent to V/A. parallel plates two plates with opposite charges. parallel circuits Circuits which have two or more current flow paths. potential difference the energy of an object due to its position or internal structure. power the rate of change in energy, or the rate of doing work. resistor a circuit element that impedes the flow of current. solar Of relating to the sun as in solar energy. series circuit elements that are connected so that they have the same electrical current conducted through them. voltage drop The change in the potential difference of an object. watts the SI unit of measurement of power; equivalent to J/s. alpha decay The process in which the nucleus emits an alpha particle. atomic mass the total number of nucleons in a nucleus. beta decay radioactive decay process in which an electronor positron and neutrino is emmitted from a nucleus gamma ray emmision A result of accelerating charges in the nucleus of an atom. half-life the time required for half of a radioactive sample to decay. positron emmision The emmision of antiparticles equivalent to electrons. photoelectric effect the emission of electrons by certain metals when the appropriate wavelength of light is shined on them. radioactice decay spontaneous change of unstable nuclei into other nuclei. radioactive material a material that can spontaneously split and emit particles. wave-particle duality The spliting of wave particles.