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13 Cards in this Set

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Diastole
Ventricular filling (~.5s)
Atrial systole is a part of ventricular diastole
Systole
ventricular ejection (~.3s)
Total Cardiac cycle
~.8s
1.2beats/minute = ~70 beats /min
Isovolumetric ventricular contraction (systole)
Systole
AV valve - closed
Aortic and pulmonary valves are closed
Ventricle contracts
Aorta relaxed
Ventricular Ejection (diastole)
Systole
AV Valve - closed
Aortic and pulmonary valves open
Ventricular contraction
Aortic relaxation
Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation (Diastole)
Both valves closed
Ventricle relaxed
Atrium relaxed
Ventricular Filling
AV valve open
Aortic and pulmonary valves closed
Ventricle relaxed
Atrium goes from relaxed to contracted
Ejection Fraction
Ejection Fraction = SV/EDV

SV = EDV - ESV

** only about 1/2 of EDV is ejected
Right Heart vs. Left heart
Right Left
pulmonary systemic
low P high P
low R high R
less muscle more muscle
Why does aortic pulse pressure not return to near zero during diastole?
1. Aorta is compliant, blows up like a balloon, can't immediately drain into blood circulation
2. Aortic distension attenuates pressure pulse
3. Aorta is resevoir for continuous blood flow
MAP
Time averaged value of the pressure trace
MAP = DP + 1/3PP
Increases w/ age b/c of decreased elasticity
Systemic vs. Pulmonary BP
120/70 mmHg
24/8 mmHg
How is Cardiac Output Measured?
1. Oxygen consumption in lungs
2. Oxygen transport in the blood
3. Thermodilution method
4. Echo Cardiography
5. Laser Doppler monitor/imager