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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1st Law of Motion
state of uniform motion will stay that way until acted upon by another force
Uniform Motion
doesn't change speed or direction
2nd Law
Force = mass x acceleration
3rd Law
same type of force, just gravity or just contact force--two objects always have the same force--nothing can exert a force on itself
Going up in the elevator
contact force has to go up
Between floors in an elevator
at constant speed
Slowing down in an elevator
forces change, contact force decreases, gravity is winning
When do you have the most kinetic energy in an elevator?
when you're between floors
Centripetal force
a force sideways to the motion of an object. Centripetal forces cause objects to turn toward the center of a circle (why moon goes round the earth--one force action, gravity)
Gravity: Why does everything fall at the same rate?
everything falls at the same rate in a vacuum. Gravity doesn't act the same on every object, because gravity is dependent on mass. If a cannon ball and and marble fall in the vacuum, they have the same speed and acceleration. Gravity is working more on the cannonball because of the weight. The marble is easier to accelerate.
What does it mean when something is charged?
electrons are moving around or are transferred (hair and ballon)
What happens if you bring two charged balloons together?
the electrical force goes up
What happens if you bring a postively and negative charged balloon together?
attraction and repulsion forces, electrical potential energy decreases
the weight of displaced fluids
3 Things happen when you go near speed of light:
1) they get short (length decreases)
2) they get fat (more massive)
3) they get slow (time slows down)
nothing is created or destroyed
what happens to mass when it is conserved?
it stays the same!
What things are conserved?
mass, charge, linear momentum, angular momentum, energy
Energies can change, but...
total energy will always be the same
How does heat transfer?
Conduction: the transmission of an electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself
Convection:energy is moved from place to place by being stored in matter as internal energy, then moving matter from place to place
Radiation: process by which energy is moved from one place to another in the form of light or related forms such as x, gamma, microwaves
Mechanical Wave
vibration in material that transports energy
Longitudinal/compressional waves
molecules vibrate in the same direction
Transverse, shear waves
vibrate at right angles
the maximum amount that a particle will displace from its normal, undisturbed position when a wave passes through it (if you change amp. of sound, you get volume, if you change amp. of light, you get brightness) HOW HIGH
distance between waves
number of waves
Wave speed
how fast it travels
bounces off surfaces
act of changing direction when passing from one medium to another (pencil in water)
changing of waves to bend around corners and obstacles
Send light through one slit
diffraction (has to bend)
Send light through two slits
Molecular MOdel of matter
tiny particles, different matter-different molecules, molecules are in constant motion, molecules obey laws
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
objects position and the uncertainty of its momentum
5 Principles of Dating
Superposition, Crosscutting, Inclusion, Horizontality, Phonal Succession
bottom layer of rock is oldest
the one that cuts across is youngest
older, chocolate chips in cookie
things are laid horizontally
Phonal succession
pattern of change in layers of rocks, use fossils to determine age
How old a rock is:
based on last time it melted
Occam's razor
use simplest explanation for something
laws don't change
sedimentary rocks
rivers pick up sediment
igneus rocks
from moten rock
metamorphic rock
Youngest part of continent
Oldest part of continent
shield--old mountain ranges that have eroded away
Shear waves in the earth
don't got through liquids (outer core), so you don't feel it
Compessional waves in the earth
refract when they hit liquid core (because they slow down when they change mediums)
compessional waves
shear waves
hard and rigid
mushy, near melting point
playdough, harder than asthenosphere
Magnetic field
in earth, there's a magnet, so must be a current of electrons (which is in the outer core--liquid and moving around, creates current of electrons)
come fromm other planets--if they're the center, they must be ours, too