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### 57 Cards in this Set

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 1st Law of Motion state of uniform motion will stay that way until acted upon by another force Uniform Motion doesn't change speed or direction 2nd Law Force = mass x acceleration 3rd Law same type of force, just gravity or just contact force--two objects always have the same force--nothing can exert a force on itself Going up in the elevator contact force has to go up Between floors in an elevator at constant speed Slowing down in an elevator forces change, contact force decreases, gravity is winning When do you have the most kinetic energy in an elevator? when you're between floors Centripetal force a force sideways to the motion of an object. Centripetal forces cause objects to turn toward the center of a circle (why moon goes round the earth--one force action, gravity) Gravity: Why does everything fall at the same rate? everything falls at the same rate in a vacuum. Gravity doesn't act the same on every object, because gravity is dependent on mass. If a cannon ball and and marble fall in the vacuum, they have the same speed and acceleration. Gravity is working more on the cannonball because of the weight. The marble is easier to accelerate. What does it mean when something is charged? electrons are moving around or are transferred (hair and ballon) What happens if you bring two charged balloons together? the electrical force goes up What happens if you bring a postively and negative charged balloon together? attraction and repulsion forces, electrical potential energy decreases buoyancy the weight of displaced fluids 3 Things happen when you go near speed of light: 1) they get short (length decreases) 2) they get fat (more massive) 3) they get slow (time slows down) conservation nothing is created or destroyed what happens to mass when it is conserved? it stays the same! What things are conserved? mass, charge, linear momentum, angular momentum, energy Energies can change, but... total energy will always be the same How does heat transfer? Conduction: the transmission of an electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself Convection:energy is moved from place to place by being stored in matter as internal energy, then moving matter from place to place Radiation: process by which energy is moved from one place to another in the form of light or related forms such as x, gamma, microwaves Mechanical Wave vibration in material that transports energy Longitudinal/compressional waves molecules vibrate in the same direction Transverse, shear waves vibrate at right angles Amplitude the maximum amount that a particle will displace from its normal, undisturbed position when a wave passes through it (if you change amp. of sound, you get volume, if you change amp. of light, you get brightness) HOW HIGH Wavelength distance between waves Frequency number of waves Wave speed how fast it travels Reflection bounces off surfaces Refraction act of changing direction when passing from one medium to another (pencil in water) Diffraction changing of waves to bend around corners and obstacles Send light through one slit diffraction (has to bend) Send light through two slits interference Molecular MOdel of matter tiny particles, different matter-different molecules, molecules are in constant motion, molecules obey laws Heisenberg uncertainty principle objects position and the uncertainty of its momentum 5 Principles of Dating Superposition, Crosscutting, Inclusion, Horizontality, Phonal Succession Superposition bottom layer of rock is oldest Crosscutting the one that cuts across is youngest Inclusion older, chocolate chips in cookie Horizontality things are laid horizontally Phonal succession pattern of change in layers of rocks, use fossils to determine age How old a rock is: based on last time it melted Occam's razor use simplest explanation for something uniformatarianism laws don't change sedimentary rocks rivers pick up sediment igneus rocks from moten rock metamorphic rock evolved Youngest part of continent mountain Oldest part of continent shield--old mountain ranges that have eroded away Shear waves in the earth don't got through liquids (outer core), so you don't feel it Compessional waves in the earth refract when they hit liquid core (because they slow down when they change mediums) P-Waves compessional waves S-waves shear waves LIthosphere hard and rigid Asthenosphere mushy, near melting point Mesosphere playdough, harder than asthenosphere Magnetic field in earth, there's a magnet, so must be a current of electrons (which is in the outer core--liquid and moving around, creates current of electrons) Meteorites come fromm other planets--if they're the center, they must be ours, too