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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the physical forms that a substance can exist in
states of matter
made up of atoms and molecules, always in motion and always bumping into each other, or interacting
matter
particles do not move fast, just vibrate, close together, small energy
solid
move fast enough to overcome some of the attractiom to each other, close together, can slide past each other, some energy
liquid
move fast enough to overcome almost all attraction, far apart, and move independently, lot of energy
gas
definite shape and volume
solid
very orderly
crystalline solid
doesn't have definite shape
morphous solid
definite volume but no definite shape, will take the shape of the container
liquid
force that acts on the particles at the surface of a liquid
surface tension
liquid resistance to flow
viscosity
no definite shape and no definite volume
gas
how fast the particles are moving
temperature
the amount of force on a specific area
pressure
a fixed amount of gas at a constant temp. the volume of the gas is inversly related to the volume
Boyle's Law
for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure the volume and the temp. changes in the same way
Charles's Law
the change of one state to another
change of state
when a solid changes directly to a gas
sublimation
changing from a solid to a liquid
melting
changing from a liquid to a solid
freezing
changing from a liquid ro a gas at the substance's boiling point (vaporization)
boiling
changing from a liquid to a gas at the surface of a liquid (at all temp.)
evaporation
changing from a gas to a liquid
condensation
temp. at which a solid changes into a liquid
melting point
the temp. at which a liquid changes to a gas
boiling point
matter that has definite chemical and physical properties
pure substance
matter that contains two or more substances that have different chemical and physical properties; isn't chemically combined; can be separated using physical methods
mixture
the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance
atom
positively charged part in the center
nucleus
in an area around the nucleus
electrons
three one-hundred-millionths of a centimeter
atom
made up of protons (positively charged) and electrons (no charge)
nucleus
negatively charged
electrons
# of protons
Atomic #
atom that has the same # of protons but different # of neutrons
isotopes
atom with a nucleus that woll change overtime; this type of isotope is radioactive
unstable atom
the sum of protons and neutrons
mass #
average of all naturally occuring isotopes of that element
atomic mass
gravitaional force
electromagnetic force
strong force
weak force
four forces of atoms
able to dissolve in water
soluble
won't dissolve in water
insoluble
substance that dissolved
solute
thing that did the dissolving
solvent
what forms when a solute and a solvent come together; appears to be a single substance; can be a solid
solution
solvent in water
aqueous
distillation
magnet
centrifuge
separating mixtures
doesn't need to be mixed in a definite ratio
components of a mixture
the process in which particles of substances separate and spread evenly
dissolving
solid solutions of metals or nonmetals dissolved in metals
alloys
particles in a ____ are so small that they never settle out and cannot be removed by filtering
solution
a measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent
concentration
can be described as concentrate or dillute but doesn't tell you the specific amounts
solutions
grams of solute
-----------------------
milliliters of solvent
concentration
less soluble if the temp. is raised
gas
a mixture in which particles of a material are disperesed throughout but are large enough to settle out
suspension
mixture in which the particles are disperesed throughout and are heavy enough to settle out
colloid
the technique used to separate dyes
chromatography
the patterns produced on the paper
chromatagram