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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Valence Electrons
electrons in outermost shell of an atom
Exclusion Principle
2 Electrons fit inside each orbital
standing wave of probability describing the behavior of an electron around an atom
The average kinetic energy of molecules that make up an aobject is directly proportional to its:
The energy of a photon is equal to Planck's constant times:
Four States of Matter
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
You can't simultaneously measure MOMENTUM and POSITION.
When will an ionic substance conduct electricity?
When dissolved in water
When you try to measure extremely dim light, what do you observe?
Light behaves as a particle
Which of the following best describes the behavior of a single electron while you make no attempt to observe it?
It acts like a wave.
Brownian Motion is best described as:
The motion of dust particles caused by the collision between the dust and molecules.
Molecular Model
Observation of Brownian motion
Plum Pudding (Thompson) model
Gas discharge experiments
Solar System (Rutherford) model
Observation that some alpha particles scatter of of gold foil
Modified Solar System (Bohr) model
Observation that atomes emit discrete spectra
Quantum Mechanical Model
Observation that electrons don't radiate as they orbit and observation that electrons have wave/particle duality
Rutherford (planetary)
electrons orbiting a small massive positively charged nucleus
Thompson (plum pudding)
Small negative particles embedded in a mass of positive charge
Quantum mechanical
Electrons in orbitals around a positively charged nucleus
Materials made of smaller units that carry the properties of the material but have no special structure themselves
Electrons in special non-radiating orbits around a positively charged nucleus.
the maximum displacement of the medium from its undisturbed position
the number of disturbances that pass a particular point per second
the distance between disturbances
how fast the disturbances are moving
Shear (transverse) wave
the type of wave that will only travel through a solid medium (perpendicular)
Compression (longitudinal) wave
the disturbance is in the direction of the wave motion
Surface wave
the kind of wave one would find on top of a lake
a wave bounces of a surface
a wave changes direction as it passes from one medium to another
a wave changes direction to bend around corners
two waves cancel or enhance each other when they move through the same space at the same time
Order the following kinds of radiation from shortest to longest wavelength.
gamma rays, x-rays, ultra violet rays, visible light, infrared light, microwaves, radio waves
Order of orbitals by energy level in which they first appear, lowest first.
s, p, d, f
For a neutral atom, what is the atomic number equal to?
The number of protons and electrons
the solid state of a material is always more dense than the liquid state of the same material.
FALSE. Water!
Of the 4 wave behaviors, two are ONLY exhibited by waves while the others are similar to particle behaviors. What behaviors are exlusive to waves?
A sound wave is what kind of wave?
A compressional wave
As frequency decreases, wavelength:
Wavespeed Formula
Wavespeed = Frequency X Wavelength
Constructive interference
(point where they meet)both disturb in the same way, so result is larger than individual
Destructive interference
where they don't meet (space between points), disturb amplitude, resulting amplitude is smaller than by themselves
Photoelectric Effect
the ejection of electrons from metals when light is shined on the metal's surface (light on electroscope)
Evidence for wave behavior of light
shine flashlight through hole, diffracts and gets bigger. If through one slit, one big light triangle. If two slits, many slits appear.
Evidence for particle behavior of light
low light photography with uv light
Which wave has the greatest energy?
Gamma rays
a material that allows electrons to flow through it
an image of iron atoms deposited on a layer of copper atoms spelling the word "atom" in Japanese. The copper atoms are only visible as the ripples in the blue background
Ionic Conductor
Materials that do not conduct electricity in the solid state, but do when dissolved in water.
As melting point increases, the boiling point...
Molecular Model of Atom
everything is made up of molecules in constant motion
Temperature =
average kinetic energy of polecues (balloon in cold)
Thompson's Model Proved Three things:
positive and negative make up molecules
positive weighs more
- stuff is same for every gas (+ changes with different gases)
Rutherford Solar System Model
line of atoms, thinks they're thin, shoots alpha particles (+ charge) at it, thinks they'll go through, but not all of them go through--every once in awhile one bounces back, which means the alpha particles are running into the dense and positive nucleus
Bohr Model
orbitals--absorption and emission spectrums.
When electrons jum down an energy level, it has to release extra energy as photons
ionization energy
energy required to lose 1 electron--increases as you go right
3 Trends of Periodic Table
1) Volume gets bigger as you go down and left
2) Columns react the same, every column has same # of valence electrons
3) Ionization energy increases as you go right