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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absorb
soak up
acceleration
how fast an object changes its velocity
acid
a chemical substance that reacts with metals to release hydrogen
actual M.A.
the M.A. a machine really has
alloy
a mixture of two or more metals
alternating current
electric current that keeps moving back and forth
ammeter
an instrument for measuring electric current
ampere
the unit for measuring electric current
amplitude
the width of a sound's pattern
angle of incidence
the angle between the incident ray and the normal line
Archimedes' Principle
the fact that the loss of weight of an object in water is equal to the weight of the displaced water
asbestos
a material used to make brakes
atom
the smallest part of an element that is still an element
atomic mass
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; sometimes called "atomic weight"
atomic number
a number used to identify an element and show its place in the periodic table
atomic weight
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
axle
a rod that a wheel turns
balance
make the number of atoms of each element the same on both sides of an equation
balanced forces
forces that are equal in size but opposite in direction
base
a compound made up of a metallic element or radical combined with one or more hydroxyl radicals
battery
two or more electrical cells connected together
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid forms bubbles of gas
burning
fast oxidation
calorie
a unit of heat; the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C
Celsius scale
the temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 0° and the boiling point is 100°
centimeter
1/100 of a meter
chemical change
a change that produces new substances
chemical equation
a way of telling about a chemical reaction with symbols and formulas
chemical formula
a shorthand way to write the name of a compound
chemical reaction
a change that produces one or more new substances
chemical symbols
a short way of writing the names of the elements
chemistry
the study of matter
chord
three or more notes played together
closed circuit
a complete path for electricity to move along
coagulation
the use of chemicals to make particles clump together
coefficient
a number that tells how many molecules of a substance are needed or produced in a reaction
colloid
a type of suspension that does not separate on standing
compound
a combination of elements that has different properties from the elements that make it up
compress
squeeze together
concave lens
a lens that is curved inward
concentrated solution
a strong solution
condensation
changing from a gas to a liquid
conduction
movement of heat energy by molecules bumping into each other
conductivity tester
an instrument used to see if solutions conduct electricity
conductor
a material that electricity can go through very well
conservation of energy
the idea that energy cannot be made or destroyed, but only changed in form
contract
get smaller; take up less space
convection
the way heat travels through gases and liquids
convection currents
up-and-down movements of gases or liquids by convection
convex lens
a lens that is curved outward
core
the material in the center of an electromagnet
cornea
the clear front of the eye
corrosion
the wearing away of metals
covalent compound
a compound in which atoms share electrons
crystal
a piece of a solid that is shaped like a jewel
deceleration
negative acceleration; "slowing down"
decibel
a measurement of the loudness of sound
decomposition reaction
a reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler substances
degree
a unit of temperature
dense
heavy for its volume
density
mass of a certain volume of a material
diatomic molecule
a molecule containing two atoms of the same element
diffuse reflection
reflection from a rough surface; reflection that does not give images
dilute solution
a weak solution
direct current
electric current that moves in one direction only
displaced water
the amount of water pushed out of the way by an object
dissolve
become part of a solution
distillation
a way of recovering the solute and the solvent from a solution
double replacement reaction
a reaction in which elements from two compounds change places, and two new compounds are formed
dry cell
an electrical cell that has a moist electrolyte
echo
a sound that is bounced back by an object
efficiency
the percent of useful work obtained from a machine
effort
the force used on a lever
effort arm
the distance from the fulcrum to where the effort is put on a lever
electric charge
a condition produced by electricity
electric circuit
the path that an electric current follows
electrical energy
the kind of energy that moving charges have
electrocuted
killed by an electric current
electrode
the negative or positive part of an electric cell; a rod that allows an electric current to enter or leave an electrolyte solution
electrolysis
using an electric current to break down a compound
electrolyte
a liquid or moist substance that can conduct electricity; a substance that can make water conduct electricity
electromagnet
a coil of wire that uses an electric current to make a strong magnetic field
electromagnetic spectrum
the spectrum made up of radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays, and cosmic rays
electromotive force
the push that makes electricity move
electron
a negatively charged atomic particle
electron shell
all of an electron's orbits, or paths, put together
electroplating
using an electric current to plate one metal onto another metal
element
a simple substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
emulsifying agent
a substance that keeps emulsions from separating
emulsion
a suspension of two liquids
energy
the ability to do work
evaporation
changing from a liquid to a gas when the liquid is left open to the air
expand
get larger; take up more space
extended source
a light source made up of many point sources
Fahrenheit scale
the temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 32° and the boiling pint is 212°
filter
a material that transmits some colors of light and blocks others
fixed pulley
a pulley that does not move
focal length
the distance from the focal point to the lens
focal point
the place where light rays from a lens meet
formula mass
the sum of all the atomic masses in a molecule
formula weight
the sum of all the atomic weights
freezing
changing from a liquid to a solid
freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid
frequency
the number of vibrations per second
friction
a force that acts against the motion of one surface over another
fuel
material that is burned to produce heat energy
fulcrum
the point where a lever is supported
galvanized iron
iron plated with zinc
galvanometer
a tool for measuring very small electric currents
gas
the form of matter that has no definite shape or volume
gram
a unit of mass in the metric system
gravity
the force that pulls things down toward the center of the earth
group
a family of elements going down the periodic table
harmony
combining musical notes
heat
a form of energy that we can feel
hertz
the unit used for measuring frequency
Hoffman apparatus
a device that can break water down into its elements
hologram
a 3-D photograph made with a laser
homogeneous
the same throughout
homogenization
making a permanent emulsion by rapid spinning
hydroxide ion
an ion containing one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom