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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a mineral?
a naturally occurring, homogenous, inorganic solid
What is the hardness of a mineral? (H)
resistance to abrasion or scratching
What is the name of the hardness scale used to test minerals and what is the order of the 10 minerals in it?
Mohs' Hardness Scale
1. talc
2. gypsum
3. calcite
4. flourite
5. apatite
6. feldspar
7. quartz
8. topaz
9. corundum
10. diamond
What is cleavage?
a break that occurs in specific directions along planar surfaces (planar weakness)
What is tenacity?
the toughness of a mineral
What is a fracture in a mineral?
a break that occurs in relatively random directions
What characterizes the chemical bonding of a mineral that fractures?
chemical bonding that is of approximately equal strength in all directions
What are the 6 types of cleavage and what minerals are included in each?
cubic - halite, galena
octahedral - fluorite
dodecahedral - sphalerite
rhombohedral - calcite
prismatic - pyroxene, amphibole, feldspar
basal - gypsum, biotite, muscovite, chlorite
What is streak?
the color of the powdered mineral
What is more reliable--streak or color?
streak
What is luster?
the way in which a mineral reflects light
What are the 7 types of lusters and what do they mean?
1. adamantine - brilliant play of colors
2. resinous - luster of resin
3. vitreous - glassy
4. pearly - iridescent, shiny
5. silky - shiny and fibrous
6. greasy, waxy - as if coated
with oil or wax
7. earthy - dull and powdery
Which minerals characterize the 7 different lusters?
1. adamantine - diamond,
sphalerite
2. resinous - garnet
3. vitreous - quartz,
some halite
4. pearly - talc
5. silky - some gypsum
6. greasy, waxy - serpentine
7. earthy - kaolinite
Which mineral reacts vigorously with acid?
Calcite
What is an igneous rock?
a solidified liquid
What are silicates?
minerals that contain both silicon and oxygen
What percent of the earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals?
over 90%
What are felsic rocks?
light colored igneous rocks

includes: quartz, potassium feldspar, sodium-rich plagioclase, muscovite, and sometimes biotite
What are mafic rocks?
dark colored igneous rocks

includes: olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, and calcium plagioclase
What is the name of the reaction series that shows which minerals solidify at different temperatures?
Bowen's Reaction Series
What are sedimentary rocks?
rocks formed from the accumulation of fragments of previously existing rocks or from chemical compounds that have been precipitated from water or secreted by an organism
Are fractures regular or irregular?
irregular
What do you call sedimentary rocks composed of rock and mineral fragments?
clastic (quartz, feldspars) or detrital
What do you call sedimentary rocks that precipitated from water or were formed by the accumulation of biogenic materials?
chemical (dolomite, calcite)or non-detrital
What do you call sedimentary rocks formed from evaporation?
evaporites or chemical (gypsum, halite)
What are metamorphic rocks?
previously existing rocks of any type that have been exposed to increased temperature and/or pressure
What do you call rocks rich in quartz and feldspar, and what type of sedimentary rock are they?
quartzofeldspathic, clastic
What kind of composition do aluminum-rich minerals (biotite, muscovite, feldspar, garnet) have?
pelitic composition
What kind of composition do rocks characterized by calcium-rich minerals (calcite, dolomite, some garnets, some pyroxenes, some amphiboles, calcium-rich plagioclase) have?
calcic composition
What is the economic use of biotite?
electrical insulators
What is the economic use of serpentine?
asbestos
What is the economic use of chlorite?
none
What is the economic use of quartz?
glass, sandpaper, watches
What is the economic use of olivine?
refractories, peridot (gem quality)
What is the economic use of garnet?
abrasives & gemstones
What is the economic use of kaolinite?
ceramics, fine china
What is the economic use of muscovite?
fireproofing material
What is the economic use of potassium feldspar?
porcelain, glass, glaze
What is the economic use of plagioclase feldspar?
porcelain, glass, glaze
What is the economic use of amphibole?
asbestos
What is the economic use of talc?
ceramic, paper, talcum powder
What is the economic use of pyroxene?
none
What is the order of the discontinuous bowen's reaction series?
olivine--pyroxene--amphibole--biotite
What three minerals are residues in the bowen's reaction series?
potassium feldspar, muscovite, quartz (felsic rocks do not dissolve easily and solidify at low temperatures)