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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AGGRADATION
THE PROCESS OF BUILDING UP AND LEVELING A LAND SURFACE BY DEPOSITION OF WEATHERED MATERIAL
PLUG (LAVA) DOME
SMALL, STEEP SIDES, NOT SYMMETRICAL, FELSIC ERUPTIONS THEREFORE VERY VIOLENT, FOUND AT AREAS OF SUBDUCTION AND ON COMPOSITE VOLCANOS
ANTICLINE
AN UPWARD CRUSTAL FOLD OF THE EARTH SURFACES RESULTING IN A HILL AND MOUNTAIN RIDGES AND USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCLINES
CINDER VOLCANO
SMALLEST VOLCANO FORM, DEVELOPS FROM THE ACCUMULATION OF SMALL PIECES OF POROUS ROCK AROUND AN EXPLOSIVE VENT, STEEPEST ANGLE OF REPOSE OF ALL VOLCANIC TYPES
CLASTIC ROCK
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS, THAT FORM BY CEMENTATION OF ROCK PARTICLES
COMPOSITE VOLCANO
LARGE VOLCANIC CONE MADE UP OF ALTERNATING LAYERS OF LAVA AND PYROCLASTIC MATERIAL, LARGER THAN A CINDER CONE AND A LOWER ANGLE OF REPOSE, INDICATIVE OF ALTERNATING GENTLE AND VIOLENT ERUPTIONS
CORE
EARTH'S CENTRE, IRON AND NICKEL, THE INNER CORE IS SOLID AND THE OUTER CORE IS LIQUID
DEGRADATION
RESULT OF CUTTING AND REMOVAL OF SURFACE ROCK MATERIAL TO A LOWER LEVEL BY THE AGENTS OF EROSION
FAULT
A BREAK IN TEH EARTH'S CRUSTAL ROCK WITH DISPLACEMENT ON ONE SIDE OF THE BLOCK IN RELATION TO THE ADJACENT BLOCK
FOLDING
THE SLOW BENDING OF PLANAR ROCK STRUCTURES AS A RESULT OF LIFTING OR OPPSOING LATERAL FORCES BEING EXERTED ON THE ROCK
GRABEN
AN ELONGATED ROCK STRUCTURE THAT HAS DROPPED RELATIVE TO THE SURROUNDING AREAS DUE TO PARALLEL FAULTING AT EACH SIDE OF THE BLOCK. RESULT IS AN ELONGATED VALLEY USUALLY WITH WELL DEFINED SIDES
HORST
AN ELONGATED BLOCK OF THE EARTH'S CRUST IS UPLIFTED COMPARED TO THE SURROUNDING AREA USUALLY WITH WELL DEFINED SIDES
MAGMA
ROCK AT VERY HIGH TEMPERATURES IN A MOLTEN STATE BENEATH THE SURFACE
MINERAL
NATURALLY OCCURING, INORGANIC ELEMENT OR COMPOUND WITH SPECIFIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CONSTANT CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
MOHO
THIN, SEISMIC TRANSITION ZONE BETWEEN THE EARTH'S CRUST AND THE MANTLE
NON CLASTIC ROCK
MINERAL MATTER PRECIPITATED FROM CHEMICAL SOLUTION OR FROM ORGANIC OCCURENCE, EG. LIMESTONE AND COAL
ROCK
A NATURALLY OCCRUING AGGREGATE MATERIAL OF THE EARTH'S CRUST THAT IS COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE MINERALS
SHIELD VOLCANO
LARGEST VOLCANO TYPE, LOW IN PROFILE, COMPOSED OF SOLIDIFIED LAVAS COVERS A LARGE AREA, NOT ASSOCIATED WITH EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS
SIAL
SILICA AND ALUMINUM, GRANATIC ROCK LAYER, MAKES UP CONTINENTAL CRUST
SIMA
SILICA, MAGNESIUM, BASALTIC LAYER, MAKES UP OCEANIC CRUST
SYNCLINE
DOWNWARD CRUSTAL FOLD IN THE EARTH'S SURACE RESULTING IN VALLEYS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTICLINES
TECTONIC
THE PROCESS OF THE DEFORMATION OF THE EARTH'S CRUSTAL STRUCTURES BY FOLDING AND FAULTING
GUTENBERG DISCONTINITY
LAYER WHICH SERPERATES THE CORE FROM THE MANTLE
LITHOSPHERE
UPPERMOST MANTLE AND CRUST
LITHIFICATION
PROCESS WHERE SEDIMENT BECOMES BURIED BY MORE LAYERS OF SEDIMENT AND IS COMPACTED INTO A ROCK
HOT SPOT
A volcanic area on the surface of the Earth created by a rising plume of magma.
ASTHENOSPHERE
PLASTIC LIKE ZONE OF MATERIAL BELOW THE LITHOSPHERE IN THE UPPER MANTLE OVER WHICH TECTONIC PLACES OF THE CRUST SLIDE
CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARY
2 PLATES COLLIDE, HEAVIER PLATE IS SUBDUCTED,

CREATES EARTHQUAKES, ISLAND CHAINS
CRUST
3-40 MILES THICK, OCEANIC AND CONTINENTAL CRUST
DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARY
PLATES SEPERATION AND CREATE A RIFT WHERE MOLTEN MAGMA FLOWS THE THE SURFACE AND SOLIDIFIES
EARTHQUAKE
SUDDEN BREAKING AND SHIFTING OF EARTH'S CRUSTAL MATERIAL RESULTING IN VIBRATION AND SHOCK WAVES PRODUCED WHEN ENERGY IS RELEASED BY TE SHIFTING ROCK MASS
EXTRUSIVE
SOLIDIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK MATERIAL ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE
INTRUSIVE
SOLIDIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK MATERIAL UNDER THE EARTH'S SURFACE
METAMORPHIC
ROCK THAT HAS CHANGED ITS PHYSICAL STRUCTURE AND/OR CHEMICAL MAKEUP, WHILST IN A SOLID STATE, DUE TO PRESSURE AND/OR AN ALTERED CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT
PANGEA
THE THEORETICAL ORIGINAL CONTINENT OF THE EARTH THAT SUBDIVIDED INTO LAURASIA AND GONDWANA
PLATE TECTONICS
THEORY THAT THE LITHOSPHERE IS COMPOSED OF LARGE CRUSTAL STRUCTURES CALLED PLATES THAT ARE IN CONSTANT MOTION AND CARRYING THE CONTINENTAL LANDMASS
SEDIMENTARY ROCK
ROCK FORMED THROUGH THE PROCESS OF LITHIFICATION FROM ACCUMULATED ROCK PARTICLES AND FRAGMENTS
SUBDUCTION
OCEANIC CRUSTAL PLATE IS FORCED BENEATH THE LIGHTER CONTINENTAL PLATE WHEN THEY CONVERGE