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73 Cards in this Set

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Weather:
Current conditions—temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover.
Climate:
Long-term description of weather, based on averages and variation measured over decades.
Climatic variation includes
daily and seasonal cycles, and large-scale cycles that occur over years or decades
Long-term climate change can be a result of?
of changes in the intensity and distribution of solar radiation
Climate determines
the geographic distribution of organisms.
Climate is characterized
by average conditions, but extreme conditions are also important to organisms as they contribute to mortality.
The physical environment must be characterized
by its variability over time, as well as average conditions.
The timing of variation is also important, such as seasonality of rainfall.
Mediterranean type climate... 2)Grasslands may receive the same amount of annual precipitation,...
most precipitation is in winter, summers are dry. Dry summers promote fire.2)but it is spread evenly throughout the year.
The _____ is the ultimate source of energy that drives the global climate.
sun
Energy gains from solar radiation must be what_____to keep temperature the same.
offset by energy losses if Earth’s temperature is to remain the same
Much of the solar radiation absorbed by Earth’s surface is emitted to the atmosphere as________.
infrared radiation
latent heat flux is?
When water at the surface evaporates it absorbs energy
The atmosphere contains?
radiatively active (greenhouse) gases that absorb and reradiate the infrared radiation emitted by Earth. and CO2 is the major contributor
Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases due to human activities are altering Earth’s?
energy balance, changing the climate system, and causing global warming. without greenhouse we would be 33C cooler
Near the equator, the sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface ________.
perpendicularly
Toward the poles, the sun’s rays are?
spread over a larger area and take a longer path through the atmosphere. think fashlight
Warm air is less dense than cool air, and it?
rising called uplift
Air pressure decreases with_______so the rising air____and ________
altitude, expands, cools
When solar radiation heats Earth’s surface,_____________.
the surface warms and emits infrared radiation to the atmosphere, warming the air above it.
Solar heating results in uplifts of _______air over the earths surface. That air must be replaced with _____air.
warm, cooler
Cool air holds _____ water vapor than warm air
less
The rising air expands and cools, and water vapor condenses to form ?
clouds
The condensation is a _____ process, which may act to keep the pocket of air warmer than the surrounding atmosphere and enhance its ______.
warming, uplift
In summer _____clouds form ____when there is ______ at Earth’s surface, and progressively____ atmosphere above.
cumulus, thunderstorms, heating,cooler
Thunderclouds reach to the boundary between the _____ and ______—where temperatures are ______.
troposphere and stratosphere, warmer
Tropical regions receive the most _________, and thus have the most _________.
solar radiation, precipitation
Uplift of air in the tropics results in a _____atmospheric pressure zone.
low
When air masses reach the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere, air flows_________.
toward the poles
Subsidence
the air descends when it cools and forms a high pressure zone at about 30° N and S. deserts are at this latitudes
Hadley cell
Equatorial uplift creates a large-scale, three-dimensional pattern of atmospheric circulation
The polar cell occurs
at the North and South Poles—high pressure zones with little precipitation—“polar deserts.
Ferrell cells exist at _____.
mid-latitudes
The three cells result in the three major climatic zones in each hemisphere
Tropical, temperate, and polar zones.
prevailing winds
Areas of high and low pressure created by the circulation cells result in air movements
Coriolis effect.
The winds are deflected to the right (clockwise) in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left (counterclockwise) in the Southern Hemisphere
The winds are deflected to the right (clockwise) in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left (counterclockwise) in the Southern Hemisphere
Coriolis effect.
Water has a _____ heat capacity than land—it can a______ and _____ more energy without changing temperature.
higher, absorb, store
Summer:
Air over oceans is cooler and denser, so air subsides and high pressures develop over the oceans.
Winter:
Air over continents is cooler and denser, high pressure develops over continents.
Major ocean surface currents are driven by _______, modified by the _______.
surface winds,Coriolis effect
Ocean surface waters are ____ and ____ saline than deep waters, and thus ____ dense. The layers ____ mix.
warmer, less, dense, don't
Where warm tropical currents reach polar areas, the water _____, ______, and the water becomes more _____ and more dense. The water mass sinks in these regions, and moves back toward the ______.
cools, ice forms, saline, dense, equator
Upwelling definintion. Occurs where prevailing winds blow ______to a coastline. The force of the wind, (with the Coriolis effect), causes surface waters to flow away from the _____ and deeper, colder ocean waters rise to replace them.
Upwellings influence _________.
is where deep ocean water rises to the surface parrell, coast, coastal climates
Upwellings also bring nutrients from the deep sediments to the ______—where light penetrates and phytoplankton proliferate. and provides food for _____
photic zone, zooplankton and their consumers
The warm Gulf Stream affects the climate of
Great Britain and Scandinavia
Ocean currents act as ________transferring heat from the _____ to the _____.
“heat pumps”, tropic, poles
As a result of all of the factors affecting the oceans currents a large interconnected pattern of flows that connects all of the worlds oceans is referred to as the
great ocean conveyor belt
_______ along with ______ are two primary factors that serve to determine the kinds of plants and animals that can inhabit an area
Tempertures, precipitation
Air temperatures on land show ______ seasonal variation than those over the oceans.
greater
Elevation also influences
temperature
Colder climates at ______ elevations result from ____ air pressure and density with ______ elevation. As a result, the heat capacity of the air also ________.
higher, lower, increasing, decreases
Proximity to oceans, mountain ranges, and regional topography influence regional climate, which influences _______.
________ in turn affects regional _______
vegetation, climate
maritime climate
Little daily and seasonal variation in temperature, and high humidity (costal areas)
continental climate
Much greater variation in daily and seasonal temperatures. (areas in the center of large continents)
Abrupt shifts in _____ on mountain slopes reflect the rapid changes in ______ as temperatures _____, precipitation ______, and wind speed ______ with elevation.
vegetation, climate, decrease, increases, increases
When an air mass meets a mountain range, it is forced _____, cooling and releasing ________.
upwards, precipitation
rain shadow and is caused by?
The slope facing the prevailing winds (windward) receives high precipitation, while the leeward slope gets little precipitation. It effects vegetation. North-south trending mountain ranges
At night, cooling is _____ at higher elevations, and the cold, dense air flows ______ and pools in ____-lying areas
greater, downslope, high
Large mountain chains can affect the ______ as well
climate and channel movement of air masses
Albedo
the capacity of a land surface to reflect solar radiation—is influenced by vegetation type, soils, and topography
Evapotranspiration
is the sum of water loss through transpiration by plants and evaporation from the soil.
Evapotranspiration transfers energy (as latent heat) and water into the atmosphere, thereby affecting _____ and _____.
air temperature and moisture
Climate ____ over time and these ____ result in changing conditions for the living organisms.
varies, variations
In the N hemisphere the earth is tilted _____ the son in summer and _____ from the sun in winter
toward, away
El Niño events are
longer-scale variations in climate associated with a switch (or oscillation) in the positions of high- and low-pressure systems over equatorial Pacific.
ENSO also includes ______ events, stronger-than-average phases of the normal pattern, with ____ pressure off the coast of South America and _____pressure in the western Pacific
la nina, high, low
North Atlantic Oscillation
NAO) is a similar atmospheric pressure–ocean current oscillation that affects climate in Europe, northern Asia, and the eastern coast of North America.
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
affects climate in the North Pacific
Milankovitch cycles
These long-term climate oscillations have been explained by regular changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit and the tilt of its axis
All organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial, are bathed in a matrix ________.
chemicals
The atmosphere consists of?
Nitrogen (78%).
Oxygen (20%).
Water vapor (1%).
Argon (0.9%).
Trace gases, including the greenhouse gases.
Pollutants
Salinity is highest near the ______, and ______ at high latitudes
equator, decreases
In the oceans, pH doesn’t vary much because the ocean water acts as a _______
buffer