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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the different groups of lymph nodes that drain the breast?
• Central (deep within axilla)
• Pectoral (anterior): along the lower border of the pectoralis major
• Subscapular (posterior): along the lateral border of the scapula
• Lateral: along the upper humerus
What does spontaneous persistent nonlactation discharge that is blood or unilateral suggest?
local breast disease from papilloma or possible breast cancer
What are risk factors for breast cancer?
• family history
• genetics (BRCA1 & BRCA2)
What are the characteristcs of nodules that need to be described and assessed if found during breast examination?
• consistency
• delimitation: well circumscribed or not
• location
• mobility
• size
• shape
• tenderness
A mobile mass that becomes fixed when the arm relaxes is attached to what?
thr ribs and intercostal muscles
What is hidradenitis suppuratuva?
sweat gland infection
What is acanthosis nigricans?
• a deeply pigmented, velvety axillary skin

• associated with internal malignancy
Which nodes in the axilla are often the most palpable?
the central nodes (against the chest wall)
What is nonpuerperal galactorrhea?
• milky discharge unrelated to a prior pregnancy and lactation
• leading causes are hormonal and pharmacologic
What are some visible signs of breast cancer?
• retraction signs (abnormal contours, skin dimpling, nipple retraction and deviation)

• caused by shortening of scar tissue as breast cancer advances
Describe the peau d'orange sign
• an edema of the skin produced by lymphatic blockade

• appears as thickened skin with enlarged pores

• often seen first in the lower portion of the breast or areola
Describe Paget's Disease of the Nipple
• an uncommon form of breast cancer, usually starts as a scaly, eczemalike lesion

• skin may weep, crust, or erode

• breast mass may be present

• should suspect in any persisting dermatitis of the nipple and areola
What are the 3 most common kinds of breast masses?
• fibroadenoma (a benign tumor)
• cysts
• breast cancer
What are clinical characteristics of fibroadenomas?
• usual age: 15-25; usually puberty & young adulthood, but up to 55

• number: usually single; maybe multple

• shape: round, disclike, or lobular

• consistency: may be soft, usually firm

• delimitation: well delineated

• mobility: very mobile

• tenderness: non-tender

• retraction signs: absent
What are clinical characteristics of cysts?
• usual age: 30-50; regress after menopause except w/ estrogen therapy

• number: single or multiple

• shape: round

• consistency: soft to firm; usually elastic

• delimitation: well delineated

• mobility: mobile

• tenderness: often tender

• retraction sign: absent
What are clinical characteristics of breast cancer?
• usual age: 30-90; most common over 50 in middle-aged & elderly women

• number: usually single; although may coexist w/ other nodules

• shape: irregular or stellate

• consistency: firm or head

• delimitation: not clearly delineated from surrounding tissues

• mobility: may be fixed to skin or underlying tissues

• tenderness: usually nontender

• retraction sign: may be present