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56 Cards in this Set
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 Back
A ______ is a form of matter that is uniform throughout in chemical composition and physical state.

phase

A ________ is the spontaneous conversion of one phase into another and may be studied by techniques that include thermal analysis.

phase transition

The thermodynamic analysis of phases is based on the fact that, at equilibrium, the ______ of a substance is the same throughout a sample.

chemical potential

The _____ relates the number of variables that may be changed while the phases of a system remain in mutual equilibrium

phase rule

What is the equation form of the phase rule?

F = C P + 2

A _________ is a chemically independent constituent of a system

component (C)
F = C  P + 2 
A solution of sodium chloride has how many constituents? How many components?

three constituents: water, sodium ions, and chloride ions
two components: water, and NaCl. Since the quantity of Na and Cl ions are dependent on the quantity of the other, they count as one component 
In terms of phase behavior, Carbon dioxide's attributes are best explained by _____

weak intermolecular forces

In terms of phase behavior, water's attributes are best explained by ____

extensive hydrogen bonding

In terms of phase behavior, Helium's attributes are best explained by ______

low mass and weak molecular interactions

The _____ of a substance decreases with increasing temperature at a rate determined by its molar entropy.

chemical potential

The chemical potential of a substance increases with increasing _____ at a rate determined by its molar volume

pressure

When pressure is applied to a ______, it's vapour pressure rises

condensed phase

At very low temperatures and provided the pressure is not too low, the _____ phase of a substance has the lowest chemical potential and is therefore the most stable phase

solid

The __________ equation is an expression for the slope of a phase boundary.

Clapeyron

The __________ is an expression for the slope of a phase boundary.

Clapeyron equation

The Clapeyron equation gives an expression for the slope of the solidliquid phase boundary in terms of the ________

enthalpy of fusion

The ClausiusClapeyron equation is an approximation that relates the slope of the __________ to the enthalpy of vaporization.

liquidvapor boundary

The ClausiusClapeyron equation is an approximation that relates the slope of the liquidvapor boundary to the __________.

enthalpy of vaporization.

The slope of the ________ is similarly related to the enthalpy of sublimation.

solidvapor boundary

In a simple mixture, µ is uniform at __________

equilibrium

What is Raoult's law?

For ideal solutions, pressure of the solution equals pressure of pure component times the mole fraction of the component.

dG = __dp ___ dT

dG = Vdp  SdT

___ = Vdp  SdT + µ_a dn_a + µ_b dn_b

dG

What is the mole fraction of benzene in a mixture of 0.20 moles benzene and 1.80 moles toluene?

(.2/2.0) = 0.1

Is partial pressure in vapor phase determined by the number of moles present in liquid solution?

Yes.

A liquid mixture is referred to as a(n) _________ when Raoult's Law is obeyed by every component.

Ideal solution

True or false: In a mixture, the mole fraction of the vapor phase (Xi) can be different from the mole fraction of the liquid phase.

True.

True or false: Ideal solutions are characterized by similar sizes of constituents, and similar intermolecular interactions

True

True or false: Ideal solutions are characterized by similar intermolecular interactions and similar functional groups.

False: Ideal solutions are characterized by similar sizes of constituents, and similar intermolecular interactions

What is Raoult's Law?

partial pressure (p_A) = pure pressure (p_A^* )
* mole fraction(\chi_A) 
At 25°C, the density of a 50% (mass) ethanol/water solution is 0.914g per cubic cm. Given that the partial molar volume of water in the solution is 17.4 cubic cm per mol, what is the partial molar volume of the ethanol?

56.4 cubic cm per mol

The Gibbs energy of mixing is calculated by forming the difference of the Gibbs energies before and after mixing: the quantity is ______ for perfect gases at the same pressure.

negative

The Gibbs energy of mixing is calculated by forming the difference of the Gibbs energies before and after mixing: the quantity is negative for perfect gases at the same ________.

pressure

The entropy of mixing of perfect gases initially at the same pressure is _______ and the enthalpy of mixing is zero.

positive

The entropy of mixing of perfect gases initially at the same pressure is positive and the enthalpy of mixing is _______.

zero

Suppose that 2.0 mol H2 at 2.0 atm and 25°C and 4.0 mol N2 at 3.0 atm and 25°C are mixed at constant volume. Calculate Δ_mix G. What would be the value of Δ_mix G had the pressures been identical initially?

9.7 kJ, 9.5 kJ

Raoult's law provides a relation between the ______ of a substance and its _______ in a mixture

1) vapor pressure 2) mole fraction

_______ is the basis of the definition of an ideal solution.

Raoult's law

Henry's law provides a relation between the vapor pressure of a ______ and its mole fraction in a mixture.

solute

_______ is the basis of the definition of an idealdilute solution.

Henry's law

Henry's law provides a relation between the vapor pressure of a ______ and its _________ in a mixture.

1) solute 2) mole fraction

The Gibbs energy of mixing of two liquids to form an ideal solution is calculated in the same way as for two perfect gases. The enthalpy of mixing is _______ and the Gibbs energy is due entirely to the entropy of mixing.

zero

The Gibbs energy of mixing of two liquids to form an ideal solution is calculated in the same way as for two perfect gases. The enthalpy of mixing is zero and the Gibbs energy is due entirely to the _______

entropy of mixing.

A regular solution is one in which the entropy of mixing is the same as for an ideal solution but the enthalpy of mixing is ______

nonzero

A regular solution is one in which the ____________ is the same as for an ideal solution but the enthalpy of mixing is nonzero

entropy of mixing

A(n) _______ is a solution in which the entropy of mixing is the same as for an ideal solution but the enthalpy of mixing is nonzero

regular solution

In the vapor phase of benzene, if the benzene vapor is treated as ideal gas, then (∂µ/∂p)_T = __?__

V_m

The reaction Gibbs energy, Δ_rG, is defined as the slope of the graph of the Gibbs
energy plotted against the _______: 
extent of reaction

How does one calculate the equilibrium constant (K)?

RT ln K = Δ_rG^bar

The ratio P_b/P_a is known as the reaction quotient, and is symbolized by ____

Q

_________ is a quantity indicating the overall extent of RXN

extent of reaction (ξ)(xi)

What is the ratio of (dG)/(dξ)?

slope of graph of G vs ξ

efficiency of an engine = __?___

[work performed(w)] / [heat absorbed from hot source(q_h)]

What are 4 processes in Carnot cycles?

1) Reversible isothermal expansion 2) Reversible adiabatic expansion (no energy leaves the system as heat, so ∆S = 0) 3) Reversible isothermal compression (energy is released as heat to the cold sink; the change in entropy is q/T) 4) Reversible adiabatic compression (no energy enters the system as heat, so ∆S=0)

What is the entropy change for an irreversible adiabatic expansion for an ideal gas?

since "irreversible" suggests a spontaneous process, we can assume that ∆S is greater than zero
