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48 Cards in this Set

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Respiration Patterns: ___ to ___ breaths per minute is considered the breathing rate for a normal adult.
10; 20
Respiration Patterns:
Occasional ___ punctuate the normal breathing pattern and are purposeful to expand alveoli.
sighs
Respiration Patterns:
Rapid shallow breathing is known as?
tachypnea
Respiration Patterns:
Slow breathing is known as?
bradypnea
Respiration Patterns:
Increase in both rate and depth of breathing is known as?
hyperventilation
Respiration Patterns:
An irregular shallow pattern caused by an overdose of narcotics or anesthetics.
hypoventilation
Added sounds that are not normally heard in the lungs are called?
adventitious breath sounds
Adventitious breath sounds:
Discontinuous, high-pitched, short crackling, popping sounds heard during inspiration that are not cleared by coughing.
fine crackles
Adventitious breath sounds:
Loud, low-pitched, bubbling and gurgling sounds that start in early inspiration and may be present in expiration.
coarse crackles
Adventitious breath sounds:
Sounds like fine crackles, but do not last an are not pathologic; disappear after the first few breaths
atelectatic crackles
Adventitious breath sounds:
A very superficial sound that is coarse and low pitched.
pleural friction rub
Adventitious breath sounds:
Discrete, crackling sounds are known as ___ sounds.
discontinuous
What are the 4 discontinuous lungs sounds called?
1. fine crackles
2. coarse crackles
3. atelectatic crackles
4. pleural friction rub
Connected, musical lung sounds are called?
continuous sounds
What are the 3 continuous lung sounds?
1. high-pitched wheeze
2. low-pitched wheeze
3. stridor
Adventitious breath sounds:
High-pitched, musical squeaking sounds that sound polyphonic.
High-pitched wheeze
Adventitious breath sounds:
Low-pitched; monophonic single note, musical snoring, moaning sounds.
Low-pitched wheeze
Adventitious breath sounds:
High-pitched, monophonic, inspiratory, crowing sound, louder in neck than over chest wall.
Stridor
The PMI stands for ___ which is now called the ___ impulse.
point of maximal impulse; apical
Where is the PMI located?
4th or 5th intercostal space, at or inside the midclavicular line.
S1 is caused by the closure of the ___ valves.
AV
___ signals the beginning of systole.
S1
___ is loudest at the apex of the heart.
S1
___ is loudest at the base of the heart.
S2
S2 is caused by the closure of the ___ valves.
semilunar
___ coincides with the carotid artery pulse.
S1
___ coincides witht the R wave of the QRS complex.
S1
The location of aortic valve area?
second right interspace
The location of pulmonic valve area?
second left interspace
The location of tricuspid valve area?
Left lower sternal border
The location of mitral valve area?
Fifth interspace at around left midclavicular line
___ is heard immediately before S1.
S4
S4 is heard best at the ___.
apex
S3 is heard best at the ___.
apex
___ may be the earliest sign of heart failure.
S3
___ murmur occurs when the heart muscle relaxes between beats.
diastolic
___ murmur occurs when the heart muscle contracts.
systolic
Murmurs are graded according to ___. The intensity is described in terms of ___ grades.
intensity; 6
A ___ indicates a fatty buildup in the artery.
bruit
A ___ is a palpable vibration.
thrill
A ___ accompanies loud murmurs.
thrill
How do you detect a bruit?
on study guide
How do you detect a thrill?
on study guide
When it is it normal to have a distended jugular vein?
When you are in a supine position.
When is it abnormal to have a distended jugular vein?
When you are in a sitting position.
Other assessments that would indiate poor circulation?
1. pallor
2. pain
3. pulse absent
4. low temperature
What 3 things would indicate phlebitis?
1. Warm temperature
2. Erythema
3. Positive Homans' sign
Where is edema often found in the bedridden patient?
dorsal lumber area (lower back)