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37 Cards in this Set

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Theories
Broad explanations and predictions conderning phenomena of interest
How do Physchologists use theory and research to answer questions?
Research in pyschology is guided by theories and hypotheses
Operationalization
translating a hypothesis into specific testable procedures that can be measured and observed
Archival Research
Research in which existing data, such as documents, records, newspapers are exmained to test hypothesis
Naturalistic Observation
observing some naturally occuring behavior and does not make a change in situation
Case Study
indepth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people.
variable
behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change or vary in some way
Correlational research
Research in which the relationship between 2 sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated or "correlated"
Random assignment to condition
A procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or conditions on the basis of chance and chance alone.
significant outcome
meaningful results that make is possible that make is possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses
replication
the repetition of research sometimes using other procedures, settings and groups of partcipantsm to increase confidence in prior findings
informed consent
document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve
experimental bias
factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment
meta-analysis
permits psychologists to combine the results of many seperate studies into one overall conclusion
experimental manipulations
change that an experimenter deliberatly produces in a situation
subliminal perception
The perception of messages about which we have no awareness.a stimulus like a word, or smell that activates the sensory system.
Stage 1 sleep
rapid, low amplitude brain waves, transition between being awake and sleep.
Stage 2 sleep
makes up about half of sleep, slower more regular wave pattern.
Stage 3 Sleep
brain waves become slower, higher peaks and lower valleys
Stage 4 sleep
least responsive to outside stimulus
Rapid Eye Movement
REM, increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, erection, and dreaming
Unconscious wish fullfillment theory
Sgmund Freud suggested that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire.
Dreams for survival theory
dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocesssed during sleep.
activation synthesis theory
Allan Hobson proposed the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep because of changes in the production of particular neurotransmitters.
Circadin rhythms
biological processes that occur repeatedly on approximately a 24 hour cycle.
Insomnia
difficulty sleeping
Circadian rhythms
biological processes that occur repeatedly on a 24 hr cycle.
phsychoactive drugs
influence a person's emotions,perceptions and behavior. (coffee,beer)
addictive drugs
produce a biological/physical dependence in the user.
stimulants
effect on central nervous system causes a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension.(cocaine, amphetamines)
depressants
drugs that slow down the nervous system.(alcohol, barbituates, rohyphnol
binge drinking
5 or more drinks for a male, and 4 or more drinks for a female in one sitting.
narcotics
drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety.
Blind spot
Optic nerve leaves the eye towards the brain.
split brain
verbal on left
Biofeedback
control biological states by electronically monitoring biological response.
Myelin Sheath
a protective coating of fat that insulates the axon.