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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
motivation
the desire and will to do something
locus of control
the extent to which a person believes he or she can influence the external environment
precontemplation stage
stage of change in which people are unwilling to change behavior
contemplation stage
state of change in which people are considering changing behavior in the next 6 months
preparation stage
stage of change in which people are getting ready to make a change within the next month
action stage
state of change in which people are actively changing a negative behavior or adopting a new, healthy behavior
maintenance stage
stage of change in which people maintian behavioral change for up to 5 years
termination/adoption stage
stage of change in which people have eliminated an undesireable behavior o rmaintained a positive behavior for over 5 years
relapse
to slip or fall back into unhealthy behavior(s) or fail to maintain healthy behaviors
process of change
actions that help you achieve change in behavior
behavior modification
the process used to permanently change negative behaviors in favor of positive behaviors that will lead to better health and well-being
techniques of change
methods or procedures used during each process of change
goal
the ultimate aim toward which effort is directed
objectives
steps required to reach a goal
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
genetic substance of which genes are made; molecule that contains cell's genetic code
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
genetic material that guides the formation of cell proteins
benign
noncancerous
malignant
cancerous
cancer
group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
oncogenes
genes that initiate cell division
suppressor genes
genes that deactivate the process of cell division
telomeres
a strand of molecules at both ends of a chromosome
telomerase
an enzyme thath allows cells to reproduce indefinitely
carcinoma insitu
encapsulated malignant tumor that has not spread
angiogenesis
formation of blood vessels (capillaries)
metastasis
the movement of cells from one part of the body to another
nonmelanoma skin cancer
cancer that spreads or grows at the original site but does not metastasize to other regions of the body
cruciferous vegetables
plants that produce cross-shaped leaves (cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and kohlrabi) and seem to have a protective effect against cancer
carotenoids
pigment substances in plants that are often precursors to vitamin A. Over 600 carotenoids are found in nature and about 50 of them are precursors to vitamin A, the post potent one being beta-cerotene
phytochemicals
chemical compounds that block the formation of cancerous tumors and disrupt the progress of cancer; found in large quantites in fruits and vegetables
carcinogens
substances that contribute to the formation of cancers
nitrosamines
potentially cancer-causing compounds formed when nitrites and nitrates, which are used to prevent hte growth of harmful bacteria in processed meats, combine with other chemicals in the stomach
melanoma
the most virulent, rapidly spreading form of skin cancer
ultraviolet B rays (UVB)
portion of sunlight that causes sunburn and encourages skin cancers
sun protection factor (SPF)
degree of protection offered by ingredients in sunscreen lotion; at least SPF 15 is recommended
mammogram
low-dose X rays of the breasts used as a screening technique for the early detection of breast cancer
stress
the mental, emotional, and physiological response of the body to any situation that is new, threatening, frightening, or exciting
stessor
stress-causing event
eustress
positive stress, under which health and performance continue to improve, even as stress increases
distress
negative stress: unpleasant or harmful stress under which health and performance begin to deteriorate
homeostasis
a natural state of equilibrium. The body attempts to maintain this equilibrium by constantly reacting to external forces that attempt to disrupt this fine balance
general adaption syndrome (GAS)
a theoretical model that explains the body's adaptation to sustained stress; includes three stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion/recovery
life experiences survey
a questionnaire used to assess sources of stress in life
structured interview
assessment tool used to determine behavioral patterns that define Type A and B personalities
type A
behavior pattern characteristic of a hard-driving, overambitious, aggressive, at times hostile, and overly competitive person
type B
behavior pattern characteristic of a calm, casual, relaxed, and easy-going individual
type C
behavior pattern of individuals who are just as highly stressed as the type A but do not seem to be at higher risk for disease than the type B
fight-or-flight
phsiological response to stress that prepares the individual to take action by stimulating the vital defense systems
endorphins
morphine-like substances released from the pituitary gland during prolonged aerobic exercise; thought to induce feelings of euphoria and ndatural well being
biofeedback
a stress management technique in which a person learns to influence physiological responses that are not typically under voluntary control or responses that typically are regulated but for which regulation has broken down due to injury, trauma, or illness
progressive muscle relaxation
a stress management technique that involves progressive contraction and relaxation of muscle groups throughout the body
breathing exercise
a stress management technique wherein the individual concentrates on "breathing away" the tension an dinhaling fresh air to the entire body
imagery
mental visualization of calming images and scenes to induce body relaxation in times of stress or as an aid in the treatment of certain medical conditions such as cancer, hypertension, asthma, chronic pain, and obesity
autogenic training
stress management technique using a form of self-suggestion, wherein an individual is able to place him/herself in an autohypnotic state by repeating and concentrating on feelings of heaviness and warmth in the extremities
meditation
a stress management technique used to gain control over one's attention by clearning the mind and blocking out the stressor(s) responsible for the increased tension
yoga
a school of thought in the Hindu religion that seeks to help the individual attain a higher level of spirutality and peace of mind
addiction
compulsive and uncontrollable behavior(s) or use of substances
marijuana
a psychoactive drug prepared from a mixture of crushed leaves, flowers, small branches, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa
tachycardia
faster-than-normal heart rate
amotivational syndrome
a condition characterized by loss of motivation, dullness, apathy, and no interest in the future
cocaine
the primary psychoactive ingredient derived from coca plant leaves
methamphetamine
a more potent form of amphetamine
amphetamine
powerful central nervous system stimulant
dopamine
a neurotransmitter that affects emotional, mental, and motor functions
MDMA
a synthetici hallucinogen drug with a chemical structure that closely resembles MDA and methamphetamine; also known as ecstasy
extasy
see MDMA
MDA
a hallucinogenic drug that is structurally stimilar to amphetamines
heroin
a potent drug that is a derivative of opium
alcohol (ethyl alcohol)
a depressant drug that affects the brain and slows down central nervous system activity; has strong addictive properties
alcoholism
disease in which an individual loses control over drinking alcoholic beverages
synergistici action
the effect of mixing two or more drugs, which can be much greater than the drugs acting by themselves
cirrhosis
a disease characterized by scarring of the liver
cardiomyopathy
a disease affecting the heart muscle
alveoli
air sacs in the lungs where oxygen is taken up and carbon dioxide (produced by the body) is released from the blood
nicotine
addictive compound found in tobacco leaves
tar
chemical compound that forms during the burning of tobacco leaves
cold turkey
eliminating a negative behavior all at once