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145 Cards in this Set

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Uniformitarianism
The idea that the laws of nature do not change with time (aka "time symmetry")
Occam's Razor
The rule that where two or more explanations exist for the same physical phenomenon, we should choose the simplest.
Relative Time
The determination of the sequence in which events occurred, relative to each other.
Original Horizontality
Sedimentary rocks are deposited in horizontal layers.
Superposition
In a stack of sedimentary layers, the oldest layer will be on the bottom and the youngest on the top.
Inclusions
Solid materials enclosed w/in another solid are older than the rock that encloses them.
Crosscutting Relationship
Rocks are older than the feautres or rocks that crosscut them.
Gneiss
Metamorphic rock, similar makeup as granite.
Quartzite
Metamorphic composed of sand grains that have been welded tightly together, unlike sandstone where the sand grains rub off in your hand.
Slate
Metamorphosed shale. It still breaks into thin layers like shale, but the layers are much harder and much more durable.
Granite
Igneous plutonic rock made mostly of quartz along wi/ sodium and potassium-rich feldspar.
Basalt
An igneous volcanic rock that is composed of calcium-rich feldspar and other iron-rich minerals.
Gabbro
An igneous plutonic rock made of the same minerals as basalt, but, because the minerals cooled slowly underground, they are coarse-grained.
Shale
A sedimentary rock made up of fine particles of clay and mud.
Sandstone
A sedimentary rock made up mostly of grains of sand.
Siltstone
A sedimentary rock made up mostly of grains of silt.
Continental Shields
The oldest parts of the continents. They represent the roots of very ancient mountains, long since eroded away.
Stable Platform
An area of the continent where the old rocks of the shield have been covered by relatively flat-lying sedimentary rocks.
Mountain Belts
Regions of the continents where the rocks have been highly deformed by enormous forces. These belts usually lie along the edges of the continents.
Continental Shelf
Part of the continent that is under a shallow cover of water.
Continental Slope
The boundary between the continents and the ocean basins. It marks a distinct change in the composition of the rocks near Earth's surface.
Oceanic Ridge
Mountain ranges that are under the oceans. They form very long mountain chains that essentially encircle Earth.
Rift Valley
A valley bounded by faults or breaks in the crust of Earth. These valleys are formed as the plates of Earth pull apart.
Crust
The uppermost layer of the Earth. Composed of two parts: Granitic continental crust and basaltic oceanic crust.
Mantle
The middle layer of Earth. it is a thick layer made up of peridotite in the upper part and higher density rocks of peridotite composition in the lower part.
Peridotite
A rock made up mostly silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium that is denser than the basalt and granite that make up Earth's crust.
Stony Chondrites
Meteorites thought to represent the primitive material from which the planets were made.
Stony Achondrites
Meteorites thought to represent material from small planetary bodies that had differenciated into layers and then were broken up.
Iron Meteorites
Meteorites thought to represent the type of material found in earth's core.
Core
The deepest or central layer of Earth. It is composed mostly of iron.
Seafloor Spreading
The theory that the ocean floor grows on either side as the mid-ocean ridge moves apart. The rift created in this process is filled in with basalt as magma squeezes up into the fractures created by rifting.
Ridge Push
Helps move the Earth's plates. The ridge is high and has gravitational potential energy which is converted into kinetic energy as the plate moves.
Slab Pull
Helps move the tectonic plates. As an oceanic plate becomes old, cold, and dense, it sinks back into the mantle, pulling the rest of the plate along with it.
Basal Drive
May help the plates to move. As the asthenosphere flows along under a plate, it may help to pull the plate along like a conveyor belt.
Mantle Reistance, Plate Collision, and Transform Fault Friction
Forces that resist plate motion.
Subduction
What geologists call the process that occurs at the trenches where old oceanic lithosphere is sinking back into the mantle. The trench area is also called a "subduction zone" and as the plates sink, they are said to be subducting.
Zone of Ablation
The part of a glacial system where melting of snow and ice occurs faster than accumulation.
Terrestrial Worlds
The rocky planets, which include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Jovian Worlds
The gas giant planets, which include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Radar Ranging
A technique for measureing distance where pulses of microwaves traveling at the speed of light are sent to a nearby object and the reflected pulse is timed in order to determine the distance. Useful only for objects that are relatively close to earth, such as moons and planets found in our solar system.
Triangulation
A distance measuring technique that involves observing the angle to a distant object from at least two different locations with a known separation. It is then possible to determine the unknown distance by comparing the observed angles. Measures distances up to about 100 light years.
Nebular Hypothesis
The planets swept together from material in a collapsing gas cloud. Orbital motions increased as the cloud collapsed.
Maria
The large, generally crater-free lava plains commonly found on the side of our moon that faces earth.
Lunar Highlands
The old, heavily cratered terrain on our moon that is thought to contain material from the original lunar surface.
Protostar
An object that will become a star in the early stages of formation before it begins to produce energy from fusion.
Brown Dwarf
An object that is like a star except for the fact that it is too small to sustain fusion reactions at its core.
Stable Star
In a stable star, the inward force of gravity is balanced by outward pressure due to the generation of energy. This type of equilibrium exists in our sun.
Red Giant
A large, bright, cool star that has exhausted most of the hydrogen fuel in its core.
Planetary Nebula
A glowing shell of gas that has been blown off an old star.
White Dwarf
A small star that no longer sustains nuclear fusion and has shrunk to become a dense object about the size of our earth.
Black Dwarf
A black dwarf constitutes the remains of a sun-sized star which has evolved to a white dwarf and subsequently cooled down such that it no longer emits light.
Supernova
A rare celestial phenomenon involving the explosion of most of the material in a star, resulting in an extremely bright, short-lived object that emits vast amounts of energy.
Neutron Star
The remnant of a supernova explosion that is composed almost totally of neutrons. It is so dense that the entire mass of our sun could be contained in a sphere of only a few tens of kilometers in diameter.
Olber's Paradox
A fundamental question in cosmology centered around the observed fact that the sky appears dark at night.
Hubble Law
An observed relation between the observed recessional velocity of a galaxy and the distance to that galaxy
Hubble Constant
A constant that is part of the Hubble Law; it gives the rate at which our Universe is expanding.
Cosmic Microwave Background
A uniform radiant field that is observable in every direction.
Four ways we learn
authority, intuition, reason, and sensory data
Authority
An accepted source of expert information or advice
Intuition
The act or faculty of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes; immediate cognition
Reason
The capacity for logical, rational, and analytic thought, intelligence
Sensory Data
Knowledge obtained through the senses
Existence
The fact or state of having actual or real being
Causality
Cause must always precede the effect
Position symmetry
The laws of the universe are not different at different locations
Time symmetry
The laws of the universe do not change with time
Principle of noncontradiction
Of two contradictory propositions, both cannot be true
Four Forces
Gravity, Electromagnetic, Weak Nuclear, Strong Nuclear
Newton's 1st law
Law of Intertia--"Every object in a state of rest, or in a state of uniform motion in a straight line with unchanging speed, will stay in that state of rest or of uniform motion, until compelled to do otherwise by forces acting upon it
Newton's 2nd Law
Force = Mass * Acceleration
Newton's 3rd Law
All forces result from interactions between pairs of objects, each object exerting a force on the other. The two resulting forces have the same strength and act in exactly opposite directions
Centripetal Acceleration
The acceleration of turning or changing the direction of motion
Gravity
Force = Gravity * mass * Mass / d^2

The mathematical formula describes the force of gravity beween two objects of mass (mass) and (Mass) separated between their centers by the distance d
Electrical Charge
The transfer of electrons from one place to another
Pascal's Law
Pressure applied to any part of a bounded fluid transmits equally to every other part with no loss. The pressure acts at right angles to any surface in contact with the fluid
Buoyant Force
A force pushing upard on objects immersed in a fluid. Buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid
Inertial frame of reference
A place of being that is experiencing no acceleration. The laws of nature are the same when looking at the universe from an inertial frame of reference. This can be experienced in an enclosed train car, or a space ship
Object moving toward the speed of light appears
-short
-fat
-slow
Conservation Laws
-conservation of mass
-conservation of charge
-conservation of linear momentum
-conservation of angular momentum (mass*speed*radius) ie ice skater
-conservation of energy
Three types of heat transfer
-conduction (stove)
-convection (heater)
-radiation (light)
Types of waves
-transverse (shear)
-Longitudal (compression)
Transverse Wave
Wave motion is perpendicular of the wave direction. Does not travel through liquid
Longitudal Wave
Wave motion is the same direction as the wave direction, i.e. sound waves
Amplitude
The maximum amount that a particle will displace from its normal, undisturbed position when a wave passes through it
Wavelength
The distance between successive similar parts in a repeating wave
Frequency
The number of wave amplitude crests that pass a particular point in space every second
Wave Speed
The rate at which a specific wave disturbance travels from point to point
Light Wave Heiarchy
Shortest
-Gamma
-X rays
-Ultraviolet
-visible
-infrared
-microwave
-radio
Longest
Reflection
The act of a wave bouncing off a surface
Refraction
The act of changing direction when passing from one medium to another
Diffraction
The changing of direction of waves to bend around corners and spread as they encounter obstacles (hamster)
Interference
The canceling and enhancing effect taht occurs when two waves move through the same space at the same time
Standing Wave
A wave characterized by lack of vibration at certain points, between which areas of maximum vibration occur. Results when you get the reflection and interference just right
Doppler Effect
A change in the observed frequency of a wave occurring when the source and observer are in motion relative to each other (bugsy)
Light properties
Wave: Diffracts, interference patterns
Particle: Grainy picture, photoelectric effect (electroscope experiment)
Light observed
Behaves as a particle
Light unobserved
Behaves as a wave
States of matter
Colder
-solid
-liquid
-gas
-plasma
Hotter
Solid
A physical state of matter that is characterized by rigidity and resistance to changes in size and shape
Liquid
A physical state of matter that readily changes shape to match its container but that resists changes in volume
Gas
A physical state of matter that readily changes both shape and volume to match its container
Boiling water
When you heat up water the potential energy of each water molecule is increased--that's why it remains at 100 degrees c
Compression force
a force that is applied in such a way as to compress a material
Tension force
A force that is applied in such a way as to stretch a material
Shear force
A force that is applied in such a way as to twist or deform a material
Continuous Spectrum
A spectrum in which the colors blend gradually together without noticeably abrupt changes or missing colors
Discrete Spectra
A spectrum of separate and distinct colors in which not all colors are present
Conductors
Materials that conduct electricity in the solid and liquid state
Ionic Conductors
Materials that do not conduct electricity in the solid state, but do when molten or dissolved in water
Non-conductor
A material which does not conduct electricity in any of its physical states
Pressure increases
When temperature increases
I hate
Studying
Continuous Model
Matter classified
No particles
Brownian Motion
The constant, irregular motion of very fine particles suspended in a fluid and observed with a microscope. Is taken as evidence for molecules, which collide with the observed particles and cause the jittery motion
Molecular Model
-Matter consists of tiny particles called molecules
-Each different kind of matter consists of a different kind of molecule
-The molecules are in constant motion
-Molecules move and interact in accord with lawas of motion, the laws of froce and the laws of conservation. Gas discharge tube experiment proved that molecules were made up of positive and negative charges
Thomson's plum pudding model
Thomson proposed that the positive charge of an atom was uniformly distributed, like a cloud, throughout a space occupied by an atom. Electrons were embedded randomly within the positively-charged region. It was good because it recognized charges, but the structure was all wrong. Disproven by gold foil experiment, which proved atoms have a positively charged nucleus
Ruthorford's Solar System Model
A model of the atom in which the electrons orbit the small, dense, positively-charged nucleus in elliptical paths. Good b/c it had nucleus, bad, if in orbits why no light?
Bohr's (revised) solar system
Same as Ruthorford, but no radiating orbiting. Bad b/c he couldn't explain why not
Quantum Model
-positive nucleus
-electrons in orbitals
-standing wave of probability
-exclusion principle (two electrons cannot be in exactly the same state in an atom)
Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle
The product of the uncertainty in an object's position and the uncertainty in its momentum must be greater than or equal to Planck's Constant--in other words, the more you know about the position the less you know about the speed/momentum
Wave/Particle duality of matter
Little brother theory--when you see, or observe, the matter it behaves as a particle, but when unobserved it behaves as a wave
Atomic Volume
Increases as you move down and left on the periodic table
Ionization Engergy
Increases as you move right and up on the periodic table
Law of increasing disorder
Changes occurring in natural systems always proceed in such a way that the total amount of disorder in the universe is either unchanged or increased. If total disorder is increased, the process is irreversable
Irreversable process
A process which goes in only one direction; its effects often cannot be undone. Most processes which occur in nature are irreversible
*separate-mixed
*structure-decay
*energy charge (like a car engine)
Reversible
A reversible process goes both forward and backward at the same time. there are no 100% reversible processes
Metalic bond
Metal-Metal
Ionic Bond
Nonmetal-Metal
Covalent Bond
Nonmetal-Nonmetal
Dipole
the separation of positive and negative charge in a polar bond or molecule (hence dipole-dipole interactions)
Hydrogen bonding
type of dipole-dipole bonding that occurres only with hydrogen bonded with nitrogen, oxygen, and flourine
Bohr's (revised) solar system
Same as Ruthorford, but no radiating orbiting. Bad b/c he couldn't explain why not
Quantum Model
-positive nucleus
-electrons in orbitals
-standing wave of probability
-exclusion principle (two electrons cannot be in exactly the same state in an atom)
Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle
The product of the uncertainty in an object's position and the uncertainty in its momentum must be greater than or equal to Planck's Constant--in other words, the more you know about the position the less you know about the speed/momentum
Wave/Particle duality of matter
Little brother theory--when you see, or observe, the matter it behaves as a particle, but when unobserved it behaves as a wave
Atomic Volume
Increases as you move down and left on the periodic table
Ionization Engergy
Increases as you move right and up on the periodic table
Law of increasing disorder
Changes occurring in natural systems always proceed in such a way that the total amount of disorder in the universe is either unchanged or increased. If total disorder is increased, the process is irreversable
Irreversable process
A process which goes in only one direction; its effects often cannot be undone. Most processes which occur in nature are irreversible
*separate-mixed
*structure-decay
*energy charge (like a car engine)
Reversible
A reversible process goes both forward and backward at the same time. there are no 100% reversible processes
Metalic bond
Metal-Metal
Ionic Bond
Nonmetal-Metal
Covalent Bond
Nonmetal-Nonmetal
Dipole
the separation of positive and negative charge in a polar bond or molecule (hence dipole-dipole interactions)
Hydrogen bonding
type of dipole-dipole bonding that occurres only with hydrogen bonded with nitrogen, oxygen, and flourine