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69 Cards in this Set

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hormone releasing tissues
glands
(pituitary,thryroid,ovaries,
testes,para thyroid, adrenal, pancrease)

CNS (hypothalmus,GI,live,heart,
kidneys,placenta)

neoplasms like lung cancers that secrete hormones like PTH, ADH, and ACTH
Amine characteristics
secreted from thyroid and adrenal gland

all are precursors from tyrosine
2 types of amine hormones
1. Catecholamines-
dopamine,norepi,epi

2. Thyroid hormone

all made from tyrosine and released from adrenal medula and thyroid gland
What classification are the majority of hormones?
peptides
how are peptides synthesized?
from preprohormone with signal peptide, signal peptide is removed in golgi and forms prohormone which contains many hormones. Processing occurs to make hormones. All this occurs in golgi
3 chem classifications of hormones
1.amines
2.peptides
3.steroids
precursor of all steroid hormones
cholesterol
Where does cholesterol that makes up steroid hormones come from?
20% comes from denovo syn.

80% comes from cholesterol in blood bound to LDL
types of steroid hormones
aldosterone
cortisol and corticosterone
androgens
estradiol
progesterone
3 places that secrete steroid hormones
adrenal cortex

gonads

placenta
3 parts of adrenal cortex and what each one secretes
1. zona glomerulosa secretes mineralocorticoids(aldosterone)

2.zona fasiculata secretes glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens

3. zona reticularis secretes glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgens
2 types of gonads and what each secretes
testes secretes testosterone

ovaries make estrogen and progesterone
what hormones does the placenta secrete?
estrogen and progesterone
What hormone are water soluable and transported in blood as free form?
catecholamines and most peptides
only 2 peptides that are proteins bound
GH and insulin like growth factor
what hormones are hydrophobic and bound to proteins to be transported in blood?
all steroid hormones

thyroid hormones

growth hormone

insulin like growth factor
describe hydrophobic hormones transport in blood
bound to proteins in blood. free form is the active form so hormones must dissociate from binding protien to be able to enter the cell and become active. most of steroid homones are in bound state with v. little free
in what state are most steroid hormones in?
bound state
functions of bound hormone
1.acts as reservoir of hormones and minimizes fluctuations in levels of homones in blood

2. extends half life of hormone bc only the free form of the hormone is metabolized
how are hormones inactivated?
metabolism
sites of hormone metabolism
liver
kidney
plasma
where are steroids broken down?
liver by cytochrome p450
what hormones are broken down in the plasma?
catecholamines and peptides
What 3 hormones are activated by metabolism?
1. renin to angiotensin

2. T4 to T3

3. Testorsterone to dihydroxytestosterone and b-estradiol
after lipid soluble hormone is metabolised what happens?
it gets put in aquesous form so that it does not diffuse across lipid bilayer. It is excreted out
2 types of hormone receptors
1.membrane bound
2.intracellular receptors
what hormones bind to membrane bound receptors?
1. catecholamines
2.peptides

causes signal transduction pathway that can activate/inactivate genes to change transcription/translation of proteins
What hormones bind to intracellular receptors?
1. steroid hormones
2. thyroid hormones
(lipid soluble hormones)

bind to receptors in the cytoplasm and transported to nucleus. the hormone receptor binds to DNA and alters gene expression
3 ways hormone actions can integrate
complementary actions

antagonistic actions

permissive actions
example of complementary actions
stress hormones

w/stress responses cortisol and epi help body with complementary actions
describe permissive action of hormones
effect of one hormone requires the prescence of a second hormone

ex:thryroid hormone is required for beta adrenergic receptors that epi binds to
2 ways hormones are secreted
pulses

cycles
2 types of cyclical releases of hormones
1.circadian patterns like cortisol and GH are released at night

2. monthly cycles such as menstral cycle
control imputs for hormone secretion
plasma conc of mineral ions or nutrients

neuronal control

physical stimuli

hormonal control (trophic)
example of how plasma conc of mineral ion/nutrients control hormone secretion
insulin secretion regulated by plasma glucose
3 hormones released by neuronal control
oxytocin, epi, and insulin
2 types of physical stimuli that affects release of hormones
mechanoreceptors

light
trophic hormones
hormone that stimulates release of another hormone
where is pituitary?
in sella turcica in sphenoid bone
Posterior pituitary
outgrowth of hypothalmus made of neuronal tissue
anterior pituitary
originates from Rathkes pouch in pharynx

cells release hormones
infundibulum
connects hypthalmus and pituitary
parts of hypothalmus
median eminence

hypothalmic pituitary portal vessels
median eminece
base of hypothalmus

this is where neurons meet the BV portion of the hypothalmus and where the neurons come to release the hormones
2 hormones releasesd by post. pituitary
1.oxytocin
2.vasopressin (ADH)
oxytocin
released by pp
octapeptide

stimulates milk ejection and uterine contraction
vasopressin ADH
released by pp
octapeptide

regulated water reabsorbtion in collecting ducts
hypophysiotrophic hormones
released from hypothalmus to regulate hormones from AP

GnRH
GHRH
SS
TRH
CRH
Dopamine

all are peptides except for dopamine
all are neurotransmitters or neuromodulators
control of release of hypophysiotropic hormones
the trophic neurons in the hypothalamus receive synaptic input from all areas of the NS. the synapses are excitary or inhibitory. various stimuli can excite hypothalmic nuclei and cause release of trophic hormones
how are AP hormones released?
hypophysiotropic hromones from hypothalmus released into portal vessels

the hypophysiotropic hormone bind to receptors on specific cells in AP called troph cells. causing release of hormones from AP
Describe release of ACTH from AP
CRH release from hypothalmus
causes release of ACTH from AP which goes to adrenal cortex and causes the release of cortisol
Describe release of TSH from AP
TRH is released from hypothalmus which causes AP to release TSH. TSH causes thyroid gland to release T3 and T4
Describe release of FSH from AP
GnRH is released from hypothalmus and that causes AP to release FSH which goes to the gonads to stimulate germ cell dev. and hormone release
Describe release of LH from AP
GnRH from hypothalmus causes AP to release LH which goes to gonads
how is GH released from AP
GHRH from hypothalmus causes GH increase. the GH causes the liver to release insulin like growth factor
what inhibits prolactin release from AP?
dopamine

dopamine is in nonpregnant people so they dont make milk
prolactin
stimulates breast development and milk production
How is GH release inhibited at AP?
somatostatin released from hypothalmus decreased release of GH from AP
what 2 places does GH act on?
1. GH stimulates release of IGF from liver

2. GH directly stimulates protein synthesis and lipid and carb metabolism
negative feedback loop
when hormones inhibit the release of releasing and trophic hormones to help dampen response. The neg feedback keeps hormone levels wi certain range
3 ex of neg feedback loops
CRH-ACTH-cortisol. the cortisol inhibits both ACTH and CRH release

TRH-TSH-thyroxine the thyroxine inhibits TSH and TRH release
4 categories of endocrine disorders
1.hyposecretion
2.hypersecretion
3.hyporesponsiveness
4.hyperresponsiveness
primary hyposecretion
abnormality at the gland due to either destruction of the gland or defects in hormone biosynthesis


ex:Type I diabletes and Hashmitos disease
secondary hyposecretion
gland is normal but there is too little synthesis from pituitary or trophic hormone

ex: Kallmans syndrome where no GnRH is released so no LH/FSH can be released
primary hypersecretion
usually due to hormone secreting cell tumor

ex: thyroid tumor
secondary hypersecretion
gland is normal but there is too much stimulus from pituitary or trophic hormone

ex: Kushings where there is a tumor in AP which increase respone to ACTH which increases release of Cortisol
hyporesponsiveness
hormone secretion is normal but target cell does not respond to hormone

ex Type II diabetes
3 reasons hyporesonsivness can occur
1. lack of hormone receptors

2. receptor signal transduction coupling is abnormal

3. metabolic activation is abnormal
hyperresponsiveness
up regulation of hormone receptors

ex. hyperresponse to epi with hyperthyroidism bc up regulation of beta adrenergic receptors