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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 functions of sertoli cells
1. support dev. of spermatocytes

2. form Blood-testes barrier via tight junctions

3. Secrete androgen binding protein and inhibin
how is testosterone made in males?
GnRH released from hypothalmus causes release of LH from AP which goes to leydig cells and causes the leydig cells to secrete testosterone. The testosterone goes to sertoli cells for dev. of spermatocytes and stimulates spermatogenisis
when is semen stored until ejaculation
vas deferens
In males what does FSH bind to? What does it cause?
FSH binds to sertoli cells which stimulates spermatogenisis and secretion of inhibin and androgen binding protein
what maintain erection?
PS releases NO which causes relaxation of arteries through release of cGMP and fills corpora cavernosa w/blood causing erection. the veins are compressed and this maintains the erection
when does mitosis of femal oogonia occur?
only in fetal stage
when does first meiotic division of oocyte occur to generate the secondary oocyte?
just before ovulation
when does the second meiotic divison of the oocyte occur?
at fertilazation. after the second meiotic division the secondary oocyte becomes the ovum which has a single copy of the maternal chromosomes
when are progesterone levels at their highest?
during luteal phase
describe the whole menstral cycle
estrogen is lo so no neg feedback on LH and FSH so causes small increase in FSH/LH

rise in FSH causes proliferation of granulosa cells

LH stimulates thecal cells to make androgens which go to the granulosa cells to make estrogen so estrogen increases

dom. follicle ID and granulosa cells secretes inhibin and estrogen so decrease in FSH bc of inhibin

increase in estrogen cause pos feedback so increases FSH and LH

LH surge which causes follicle to make progesterone

ovulation occurs

CL forms and it makes estrogen and progesterone

progesterone inhibits GnRH so decrease in LH and FSH and inhibin furter decreases FSH

CL degenerates and lose estrogen and progesterone

since no estrogen or progesterone LH and FSH rise again
what do thecal cells make?
LH stimulates thecal cells to make androgens
How is estrogen made?
LH stimulates thecal cells which secretes androgens and the androgens go the granulosa cells to make estrogen
What releases estrogen?
granulosa cells
what causes LH surge?
large increase in estrogen
When Estrogen increases, it causes a LH surge. Why does it not cause a FSH surge
bc inhibin inhibits FSH
What does LH surge cause?
first meiotic division

what does CL form from?
theca and granulosa cells
what does LH stimulate?
progesterone production from CL
3 phases of uterus


what hormone controls proliferative phase of uterus?
estrogen lasts 10 days

same time as follicular phase
Proliferative phase of the uterus
estrogen causes growth and development of endometrium and myometrium

puts progesterone receptors on uterus bc need progesterone for secretory phase
when does secretory phase of uterus occur?
between ovulation and onset of menstration
hormone that causes secretory phase of uterus
secretory phase of uterus
do to progesterone

maturation of endometrial glands and BV

stimulates glandular secretion

inhibits myometrial contractions
what causes menstral phase of uterus
fall of estrogen and progesterone cause prostaglandins which causes uterine contractions and vasoconstriction so the endometrium sloughs off
female puberty
10-12 yrs.

GnRH increase which cause sex steroid to increase

secondary sex characteristic develop due to increased estrogen
Male puberty
12-16 yrs old

first sign is increase in secretion of androgens from adrenal glands which cause increase in pubic and axillary hair and growth spurt

increase in GnRH cuases increase in AP hormone and sex hormones from gonads

testosterone causes secondary sex characteristics
due to lo number of ovarian follicles

ovaries dont respond to LH or FSH bc loss of folicles

hypothalmus and AP function but GnRH are hi due to no feedback of estrogen(bc no follice)

brain gets disorganized
how to treat menopause
sex steroids