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13 Cards in this Set

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what are the different cells in the porifera
choanocytes - pull in water, trap food, gamete production
archaeocytes - sponge version of stem cells. can change into necessary cells. used for food digestion and assimilation as well as gamete production
amoebocytes - produce spicules
pinacocyte -epidermal layer made up of spicules. helps regulate water flow
what are the three levels of structural complexity in the phylum porifera?
- Asconoid (simplest structure. ostium lead straight into atruim and out osculum)
-sycnoid (ostium arranged in slightly more complex network, called radial canals) before entering the atrium and out through osculum)
-Leuconoid (ostium create very complex networks called incurrent canals. lead to flagellated chambers where feeding occurs, exits through the excurrent canals and out via the osculum)
what are the characteristics of the phylum porifera
-simplest multi-cellular animal (metazoa)
-cell rather than tissue differentiation
-mostly asymmetrical
-sexual and asexual reproduction
-highly regenerative
-all aquatic
Porifera - what is their general structure
choanocytes ( feeding cells), osculum (top opening), atrium (centre chamber), ostia (poors for water/material entry)
cells are all arranged in gelatinous matrix (mesoglea)
Porifera - lifestyle and feeding
- all aquatic, FW and marine
- choanocytes draw in water through ostia using their beating flagella, food particles stick to the colar microvilli, get pulled into head of choanocyte, taken to archaeocytes for digestion and assimilation
Porifera - body support and locomotion
-skeleton is made up of spicules (silica or calcium compounds) and is secreted by amoebocytes
collagen fibres(spongin) gives structure
- larvae moves via flagella. adults are sessile
Porifera - what functions are the flow of current important for?
-respiration, feeding, circulation, excretion, osmoregulation and reproduction
Porifera - what are the four classes and their characteristics (based on spicule type)
-demospongiae (silica and spongin fibres)
-hexactinellida (silica, 6 rayed)
- calcarea (CaCo, 1,3 or 4 rays)
-sclerospongiae (silica & spongin fibres. ext. skeleton of CaCo)
Porifera - what are the types of spicules
-siliceous spicules (hexactinellida. pointy, six rayed)
-siliceous spicules (demospongiae, 4 rayed mostly)
-spongin (all interlocked, looks like sponge)
-calcerous spicules (1,3 or 4 rays)
what is an animal
-multi cellular, heterotrophic, develops from an embryo, cell and tissue differentiation, generally motile
Porifera - reproduction
- asexual via budding, fragmentation and gemules
- sexual reproduction. monoescious
what is a gemule and what produces these
they are resistant capsules which are produced during asexual reproduction of spnges. fresh water only. very resilient
Porifera - describe sexual reproduction
-gametes arise from choanocytes or archaeocytes
-produce gametes (egg & sperm) at different times
-sperm enters another sponge for fertilisation which occurs within the mesoglea
- after fertilisation, larvae leave adult sponge, find suitable substrate and grow