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25 Cards in this Set

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What are some defining characteristics of the Kingdom Protista.
-most are heterotrophic except Phylums Euglenophyta and Dinophyta
-nicellular or colonial
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Euglenophyta?
-has chloroplasts with 3 surrounding membranes
-biflagellate (heterokont) with non-tubular mastigonemes
-lacks a true cell wall, or is limited to resting cysts and spores
-many are non photosynthetic, SAPROTROPHIC, or PHAGOTROPHIC
-main food reserve are PARAMYLON BODIES
-chromosomes remain condensed through interphase
-sexual reproduction is not known and asexual reproduction is by means of cell cleavage
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Dinophyta?
-has chloroplasts with 3 surrounding membranes
-biflagellate (heterokont) with non-tubular mastigonemes
-lacks a true cell wall, or is limited to resting cysts and spores
-mostly marine plankton
-responsible for red tides
-has chlorophyll 'c2'
-has normal starch as food reserves
-has a goofy way of division...
-MESOKARYOTIC: chromosomes are similar to those of prokaryotes although they occur within nuclei
What are some defining characteristics of the Kingdom CHROMISTA?
-heterokont flagella with tubular mastigonemes on one flagellum
-laterally inserted flagella
-photosynthetic
-chloroplasts have chlorophyll 'c1' and 'c2'
-thylakoids are stacked in 3's and have 4 surrounding membranes
-no starch, instead has STORAGE CARBOHYDRATES WITH B-1:3 LINKAGE
What are some defining characteristics of the Phylum BACILLARIOPHYTA?
-AKA Diatoms
-big time primary producers
-golden brown color because of the carotenoid pigment FUCOXANTHIN
-classified based on silica walls
-grouped into CENTRIC & PENNATE diatoms
-a compound structure consisting of a flat plate called a VALVE attached to a marginal band
-because they have rigid cell walls, each daughter protoplast is smaller than the parent (takes the hypotheca, and uses that as the epitheca). The situation is saved by sexual reproduction
-sporophyte dominant
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum XANTHOPHYTA
-AKA Yellow-green algae
-color is due to the presence of yellow carotenes rather than the brown fucoxanthin of the diatoms
-sexual reproduction is OOGAMOUS, the oogonia and antheridia occur adjacent to each other on very short side branches
-ANTHEROZOIDS are biflagellate and heterokont, one flagellum of the tinsel type, the over whiplash

***Eg: Vaucheria, a coenocytic filament***
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum PHAEOPHYTA?
-AKA Brown algae
-largest of all algae
-have either ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS or SPOROPHYTE DOMINANT LIFE CYCLES
-cell wall has a large proportion of pectin, and a bunch of other things that makes it feel slimy
-chloroplasts are disc shaped
-has chloroplasts 'c1' and 'c2' with fucoxanthin (brown color)
-main food reserve is Laminarin
-motile cells have laterally attached heterokont flagella
-heterotrichous
-distinguished from eachother by the sporangia and gametangia
Go over the life cycle of Ectocarpus.
-alternation of isomorphic generations
-haploid gametophyte generation producs PLURILOCULAR GAMETANGIA
-each cell releases a single, biflagellate gamete
-gametes fuse to gve the diploid zygote which germinates into a sporophytic plant
-sporophyte produces UNILOCULAR SPORANGIA
-meiosis occurs in unilocular sporangia
**both reproductive structures can reproduce asexually**
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Laminariales.
-AKA Kelps
-coastal algae
-have anisomorphic alternation of generations with a filamentous gametophyte generation
-have a CYLINDRICAL STALK (STIPE), a flattened, often divided frond (LAMINA) and a HOLDFAST
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Fucales
-AKA Wracks
-grows by mean of an apical cell
-dichotomous branching of the thallus
-many spps have PNEUMATOCYSTS, air bladders which control buoyancy
-apices are bloated RECEPTACLES, having several CONCEPTICLES on them
-CONCEPTICLES bear the gametes
-thallus is the sporophyte
-sporophyte dominant
Go over the life cycle of Fucus
-uninlocular sporangia occur in the conceptacles with sterile hairs (PARAPHYSES)
-meiosis takes place in these sporangia to produce haploid meiospores... but doesn't get released from the conceptacle
-spores undero mitotic division to form the gametes
-this means that the gametophyte generation is so reduced that, technically, the meiospores themselves are the gametangia
-sporangia are better referred to as MICROSPORANGIA and MEGASPORANGIA
What are the 5 evolutionary trends in gross morphology of algal phyla.
1) unicellular -> colonial types or unbranched filament -> branched filament -> heterotrichous filaments or parenchymatous structures

2)gametophyte dominant -> isomorphic alternation of generations -> anisomorphic alternation of generations -> sporophyte dominant life cycle

3)undifferentiated -> differenctiated gametangia and sporangia

4)isogamy -> anisogamy -> oogamy

5)diffuse -> intercalary -> apical growth
Classify and draw Euglena
D-Eukarya
K-Protista
P-Euglenophyta
G-Euglena

Did you get:
-chloroplast
-eyespot
-reservoir
-paramylon body
-flagellum
-contractile vacuole
-cell membrane
Classify and draw Trachelomonas
D-Eukarya
K-Protista
P-Euglenophyta
G-Trachelomonas

Did you get:
-lorica with spines
-flagellum
-eyespot
-chloroplast
-nucleus
Classify and draw Ceratium
D-Eukarya
K-Protista
P-Dinophyta
G-Ceratium

Did you get:
-theca
-pores
-horn
-corona of spines
-girdle
-sulcal aperture
-suture between plates of theca
Classify and draw Peridinium
D-Eukarya
K-Protista
P-Dinophyta
G-Peridinium

Did you get:
-theca
-transverse groove
-thecal plates
Classify Ornithoceros
D-Eukarya
K-Protista
P-Dinophyta
G-Ornithoceros
Classify Pyrocystis
D-Eukarya
K-Protista
P-Dinophyta
G-Pyrocystis
Classify and draw Synedra
D-Eukarya
K-Chromista
P-Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
G-Synedra

Did you get:
-epitheca
-hypotheca
-valve
-girdle band
-pores
Classify and draw Triceratium
D-Eukarya
K-Chromista
P-Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
G-Triceratium

Did you get:
-epitheca
-hypotheca
-girdle
-pores
Classify and draw Cymbella
D-Eukarya
K-Chromista
P-Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
G-Cymbella

Did you get:
-raphe
-central nodule
-polar nodule
-pores
Classify and draw Vaucheria
D-Eukarya
K-Chromista
P-Xanthophyta (yellow-green)
G-Vaucheria

Did you get:
-coenocytic filament
-chloroplast
-nuclei
-antheridium
-oogonium
-oospore (zygospore)
Classify and draw Ectocarpus
D-Eukarya
K-Chromista
P-Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
O-Ectocarpales
G-Ectocarpus

Did you get:
-branching pattern
-filament
-vegetative cell
-chloroplast
-cell wall
-nucleus
-cytoplasm
-plurilocular sporangium
-unilocular sporangium
-plurilocular gametangium
Classify and draw Laminaria
D-Eukarya
K-Chromista
P-Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
O-Laminariales (Kelps)
G-Laminaria

Did you get:
-blade
-stipe
-holdfast
-sorus
-unilocular sporangium
-unilocular sporangium
-plurilocular gametangium
Classify and draw Fucus
D-Eukarya
K-Chromista
P-Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
O-Fucales (Wracks)
G-Fucus

Did you get:
-frond
-dichotomous branching
-receptacle
-ostiole
-conceptacle
-pneumatocyst
-megasporangium
-megaspore
-egg
-paraphysis
-microsporangium