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28 Cards in this Set

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What are some defining characterisitics to the class Ulvophyceae?
-symmetric
-motile cells with anterior flagella
-motile cells are either naked or possess scales in place of the theca
-cell division is by membrane furrowing (no phycoplast)
-nuclear division is characterized by a persistent rather than a collapsing spindle
-marine, therefore lack an overwintering zygote (b/c marine environments are more stable)
-life cycle is an alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid generations
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Ulothrix?
-cells possess a collar shaped (not full ring), parietal chloroplast around the lateral walls of each cell
-unbranched filament
How does Ulothrix reproduce?
Sexual Reproduction
-by means of biflagellate gametes from different but isomorphic thalli and is isogamous
-zygote germinates to produce APLANOSPORES from which gametophytic plants develope

Asexual Reproduction
-haploid filaments also produce mitospores of 3 types:
1)large, quadriflagellate zoospores
2)small, biflagellate zoospores
3)aplanospores
What are some defining characteristics of the Genus Ulva?
-cell division is in 2-D therefore get leafy plants
-each cell further divides once in a third dimension to get a 2 layered leaf like thallus
-marine
-posesses an alternation of isomorphic generations
What are some defining characteristics of the Genus Cladophora?
-cells may divide longitudinally periodically, resulting in a branched filament
-multinucleate
-sporangia are limited to terminal cells of branch filaments
-growth of the filaments is by division of an apical cell
-cell walls are thick and rough to the touch (b/c of parrallel layers of cellulose)
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Pithophora
**This was only available as demo shit, don't worry**
-closely related to Cladophora
-has AKINETES at regular intervals
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Caulerpa
-AKA the 'Ultimate Seaweed'
-each frond is up to 90cm long!!!
-up to 200 fronds growing from a basal runner ~ 3m long
-the whole structure is a single, multinucleate cell
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Charophyceae?
-thought to be the class from which terrestrial plants evolved
-cell division is by means of PHRAGMOPLAST
-lateral position of the flagella; however, there is also a tendency to the loss of centrioles and, therefore, the loss of flagella
-persistent nuclear spindle
-presence of scales on some motile cells
-gametophyte dominant life cycle
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Zygenmatales?
-COMPLETE absence of flagellated cells
-lacks centrioles
-can be subdivided into 2 groups: 1)unbranched filaments; 2)unicellular forms
Of the Order Zygenmatales, what are some defining characteristics to the Unbranched Filaments group?
-common in stagnant water
-free floating rather than attached to substrate
-different genera distinguished primarily by CHLOROPLAST MORPHOLOGY (eg: Spirogyra vs. Mougeotia vs. Zygnema)
How do Spirogyra reproduce?
Asexual Reproduction
-Vegetative reproduction
--fragmentation is rather specialized and is the reason for the filaments are free floating rather than attached
--involves the breakdown by enzymes of the pectic 'middle lamella' which holds adjacent cells in the filaments together
-also happens by means of non motiles spores, kinda like akinetes
--cell protoplast becomes round and then secretes a thick wall, resulting spore looks like a zygote

Sexual Reproduction
-by CONJUGATION, fusion of isogamous, amoeboid gametes
-2 types of conjugation:
1)Scalariform: b/w cells of diff filaments
2)Lateral: b/w cells of same filament
**cells produce papillae, which grow to eet eachother, now called a CONJUGATION TUBE**
Of the Order Zygenmatales, what are some defining characteristics to the Unicellular Forms group?
-AKA Desmids
-unicellular desmids have cell walls made up or 2 identical halves
-each half is referred to as a SEMI-CELL
-the 2 semi cells are joined by a narrow ISTHMUS
-most common in nutrient poor, acidic water
-also reproduce via CONJUGATION (joined papillae)
-eg: Micrasterias, Closterium
Define Isthmus
-the narrow connection between the semi cells of a desmid
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Charales?
-AKA Stoneworts
-complex vegetative growth and type of sexual reproduction
-possess apical growth and differentiation of the plant body into short nodes and elongate internodes, each a single single cell in length
-reproduction is oogamous
-gametaniga surrounded by sterile cells
-male gamete is highly asymmetric
-motile cells are covered in scales
-cell division by means of PHRAGMOPLAST
-no asexual reproduction!!!
-form underwater meadoes in shallow lakes and onds
-individual plants grow to 2 feet in length or more
-plants become heavily calcified (hence Stoneworts)
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Coleochaetales?
-these guys are most likely ancestors to terrestrial plants of the Class Charophyceae
Classify and draw Ulothrix.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Ulvophyceae
O-Ulotrichales
G-Ulothrix

Did you get:
-filament
-vegetative cell
-cell wall
-chloroplast (incomplete collar)
-pyrenoid
-spore
Classify and draw Ulva.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Ulvophyceae
O-Ulvales
G-Ulva

Did you get:
-vegatative thallus
-2 layers thick
Classify and draw Cladophora.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Ulvophyceae
O-Cladophorales
G-Cladophora

Did you get:
-filament
-branch
-vegetative cell
-thick cell wall (has chitin)
Classify Enteromorpha.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Ulvophyceae
O-Ulvales
G-Enteromorpha
Classify and draw Spirogyra
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Charophyceae
O-Zygnematales
G-Spirogyra

Did you get:
-vegetative filament
--filament
--vegetative cell
--spiral chloroplast
--pyrenoid
--nucleus
--cytoplasm
--vacuole
--cell wall
--gelatinous sheath

-Conjugating filamnts
--filament
--cell wall
--conjugation tube
--gamete (amoeboid)
--zygote
--zygospore
Classify and draw Zygnema
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Charophyceae
O-Zygnemales
G-Zygnema

Did you get:
-filament
-vegetative cell
-stellate chloroplast
-nucleus
-pyrenoid
-cell wall
Classify and draw Closterium
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Charophyceae
O-Zygnematales
G-Closterium

Did you get:
-vegetative cell
-cell wall
-chloroplast
-nucleus
-refractile vacuole
-pyrenoid
-semi cell
Classify and draw Micrasterias
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Charophyceae
O-Zygnematales
G-Micrasterias

Did you get:
-semi cell
-isthmus
-cell wall
-chloroplast
-pyrenoid
-nucleus
Classify and draw Chara
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Charophyceae
O-Charales
G-Chara

Did you get:
-internode
-node
-whorls of branches
-antheridium, sterile/shield cells
-oogonium, cover/tube cells
-crown cells
Classify Nitella
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Charophyceae
O-Charales
G-Nitella
Classify Coleochaete
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta
C-Charophyceae
O-Coleochaetales
G-Coleochaete
Write out the life cycle of Spirogyra.
-too lazy to write, just check your lab shit
-xerox: P3-6

**recall diff between scalariform and lateral reproduction**
Write out the life cycle of Ulva.
-too lazy to write, just check your lab shit
-xerox: P3-3