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44 Cards in this Set

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What are defining characteristics to the class Micromonadophyceae?
-unicellular green alge which are considered to be primitive and from which the other 3 classes may have evolved
-cell division by means of membrane furrowin
-a persistent spindle during nuclear division
-presence of scales on the flagella
**not too much was done on these guys... only included for the sake of completion**
What are the defining characteristics to the class Chlorophyceae?
-the largest class of green algae
-motile cells that possess a theca rather than scales as a cell covering
-flagella are of equal length and are isokont(same structure)
-symmetric
-cell division is initiated by the formation of a PHYCOBLAST
-therefore separated chromosomes do not need to be kept apart by a persistent nuclear spindle
-therefore, the spindle collapses relatively early during cell division
What is a THECA?
-evolved by the fusion of scales
-covers the cells of members of class Chlorophyceae
-composed of polysaccharides other than cellulose
What is a PHYCOBLAST?
-a septum of microtubules
-involved in cell division
-grows horizontally from the center, thereby seperating the genetic material
**In Oedogonia, grows from one side of the cell to the other side, separating the genetic material**
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Volvocales?
-unicellular or colonial
-moves by 'rolling'
-has a gametophyte dominant life cycle
-gametes may be isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous
What are ISOGAMOUS, ANOISOGAMOUS and OOGAMOUS gametes?

How do they fertilize and what happens after fertilization?
-Isogamous = equal size
-Anisogamous = unequal size
-Oogamous = single, nonflagellate female gamete

-when gametes from compatible strains are mixed, they are attracted to each other and clumps of cells are formed
-these clumps break up when the gametes swim off in pairs joined by their flagella
-after fusion of the gametes, the zygote secretes a thick wall to form a ZYGOSPORE and enters a period of dormancy rior to germination
How do Chlamydomonas reproduce?
Sexual reproduction
-gamete release and fusion

Asexual reproduction
-MITOSPORE(mitotic spore) production
-division of the protoplast is accomplished by a furrowing of the cytoplasmic membrane between the 2 daughter nuclei
How many cells can be present in a Volvox colony?
-up to 50,000 cells arranged in a holoow sphere
Define COENOBIUM.
-a colony in which the number of cells is genetically predetermined
Define GONIDIA.
-a cell within a Volvox colony involved with asexual reproduction
-large cells within the parent colony which divide to become arranged in a curved plate(PLAKIA)
How does Volvox reproduce?
Asexual reproduction
-GONIDIA divides to form PLAKEA
-flagella of each cell in the plakea point inwards
-the bottom end of the plakea invaginates and the whole structure turns itself inside-out (DERBY-HAT STAGE)
-flagella are now facing outeards and the pore in the wall of the colony closes
-daughter cells are released to the inside of the parent colony and do not become free until the parent colony dies

Sexual reproduction
-OOGONIA appear similar to the asexual cells of vegetative colonies, but remain single celled
-SPERM PACKETS with male gamtes swim towards and attach themselves to a female colony, dissolve a pore in it and release indiviual gametes into the colony. The male gametes then swim to and fertilize the oogonia
-fertilization of oogonium yields zygote which secretes thick wall = ZYGOSPORE
-parent colony dies and releases the zygospores
-zygospores germinate after meiosis to form a new generation of haploid vegetative colonies
What are some defining characteristics of the Order Chlorococcales?
-have non-motile unicells or colonies in their vegetative stage
-start life being unicnucleate but become multinucleate because cross wall formation generally does not accompany nuclear division (COENOCYTIC)
Define COENOCYTIC.
-when cross wall formation does NOT accompany nuclear division
-therefor you get multinucleate cells
How do Pediastrum and Scenedesmus form colonies?
-zoospores are formed within vegetative cells but are not released
-the outer part of the cell wall splits, releasing a vesicle within which the zoospores swim around for a time
-eventually they lose their motility and align themselves in a manner characteristic of the form ofthe mature, flat, starshaped colony
-the vesicle is a relatively rigid lens-shape which forces the soosppores to form a colony 1 cell thick
What are some defining characterisitics of the Order Sphaeropleales?
-only reproductive cells are motile
-filamentous
-growth is by means of VEGETATIVE CELL DIVISION and is potentially unlimited (ie: not coenobia). Acheived by mitosis
-have walls made up of H-pieces, which are shared by adjoining cells
In the order Sphaeropleales, how does cell division and elongation occur?
-as the cells divide, new H-pieces are formed between daughter cells and the parental H-pieces are pushed apart from each other
-the cell elongates prior to cell division and the segments slide apart at the same time as a cylinder of new wall material is laid down inside the existing wall
-a cross wall is formed within the cylinder after cell division
-now have new H-piece shared by the adjoining daugher cells
-this structure aids in fragmentation of filaments and spore dispersal
What are some defining characteristics of the order Chaetophorales?
-characterized by branching filaments
-HETEROTRICHOUS: a basal spreading system of rhizoids for anchorage, an erect branching system for photosynthesis
-body is partly PSEUDOPARENCHYMATOUS
-cell division by means of a PHYCOPLAST rather than a PHRAGMOPLAST
Define HETEROTRICHOUS.
-describes the ability to produce 2 different kinds of filaments
What are some defining characteristics of the order Oedogoniales?
-relatively easy to study because of its size
-method of vegetative cell division, sexual and asexual reproduction distinguish this order from others
-filamentous
-unicunleate cells
What is a CAP CELL?
-a cell with many striations at the apical end
-result of elongation
In Oedogonium, how does cell division and elongation occur?
-nucleus divides mitotically
-inner layer of cell wall near one end of the cell thickens so that a complete ring of hemicellulose is formed
-phycoplast growss across the cell between the daughter nuclei, separating the daughter nuclei
-lateral wall ruptures at the piont of attachment of the hemicellulose ring due to pressure generated by the uptake of water in the cell vacuole
-cell expands rapidly in volume so that the hemicellulose ring is drawn out into a cylinder
-phycoplast moves upwards to the base of the ruptured lateral wall, bringing a daughter nuclei with it
-cllulose is laid down on the inner surface of the stretched hemicllulose ring to from the lateral walls of the new daughter cell and on the septum to form the new transverse wall dividing it from the parental cell
How does Oedogonium reproduce?
Asexual reproduction
-by production of zoospores
-formed singly in vegetative cells of the filament and are released by rupture of the cell wall near the caps
-zoospore is moved out of cell in a membranous vesicle
-after the vesicle breaks, zoospre swims around for a while then comes to rest on a suitable substrae
-one end of the zoospore differentiates to form an attaching rhizoid
-the other elongates slightly and division begins
-it will grow into a new filament of Oedogonium

Sexual Reproduction
-a distinctive type of OOGAMY
-MACRANDROUS and NANNANDROUS cycles discussed in another card
-zoospore have stephanokont flagellation
What is STEPHANOKONT flagellation?
-anterior end of the cell possesses a ring of flagella
-a fibrous strand connects the basal bodies of the flagella to make the ring
In Oedogonium, what is OOGONIUM?
-formed by enlargement of a cap cell
-becomes spherical and approximately double the size of the vegetative cell
-bright orange in colour
In Oedogonium, what is ANTHERIDIA?
-differentiated cells that produce antherozoids, the male gamete
-2 ways to produce antheridia: 1)macrandrous cycle; 2)nannandrous cycle
In Oedogonium, what is ANTHEROZOIDS?
-the male gamete
-resembles zoospores
-not to be confused with ANTHERIDIUM which makes ANTHERZOIDS in singles or in pairs
In Oedogonium, what is ANDROSPORES?
-present in the NANNANDROUS life cycle
-looks like zoospores
-once attached to oogonium, they form DWARF MALE FILAMENTS which produce ANTHEROZOIDS from the apical cell
-produced in ANDROSPORANGIUM in pairs
In Oedogonium, what is ANDROSPORANGIUM?
-present in the NANNANDROUS life cycle
-acts like an ANTHERIDIUM but is present in the filament vegetative cells, not clear if they can exist in cap cells
-produces 2 ANDROSPORES per androsporangium
Describe the Macrandrous life cycle of Oedogonium.
-rapid divisions of a cap cell form antheridial cells
-each antheridial cell contains 2 antherzoids
-antherozoids penetrate the oogonium pore and fertilizes the single ovum
**compared to the Nannandrous life cycle, this is a fairly direct and simple method**
Describe the Nannandrous life cycle of Oedogonium.
-ANDROSPORANGIUM releases 2 ANDROSPORES
-androspores swim towards the oogonium and either attach to it, or to the cell beneath it
-androspores then germinate into a 2 or 3 celled filament called the DWARF MALE FILAMENT
-the apical cell of the dwarf male filament acts as an ANTHERIDIUM and releases 2 ANTHERZOIDS
-antherozoids penetrate the oogonium pore and fertilizes the single ovum
**compared to the Macrandrous life cycle, this is a fairly indirect and complex method**
What is a DWARF MALE FILAMENT?
-a short, 2 or 3 celled filament that is present in the Nannandrous life cycle of oedogonium
-product of androspore
-has an antheridium like cell at the apex
-found on or beneath oogonium
All organisms studied in this lab are classified:

Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Plantae
Phylum - Chlorophyta
Class - Cholorophyceae

What organism(s) were studied under the order VOLVOCALES(3)?
1-Carteria
2-Chlamydomonas
3-Volvox
All organisms studied in this lab are classified:

Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Plantae
Phylum - Chlorophyta
Class - Cholorophyceae

What organism(s) were studied under the order CHLOROCOCCALES(2)?
1-Scenedesmus
2-Hydrodictyon
All organisms studied in this lab are classified:

Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Plantae
Phylum - Chlorophyta
Class - Cholorophyceae

What organism(s) were studied under the order SPHAEROPLEALES(1)?
1-Microspora
All organisms studied in this lab are classified:

Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Plantae
Phylum - Chlorophyta
Class - Cholorophyceae

What organism(s) were studied under the order CHAETOPHTHORALES?
1-Stigeoclonium
All organisms studied in this lab are classified:

Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Plantae
Phylum - Chlorophyta
Class - Cholorophyceae

What organism(s) were studied under the order OEDOGONIALES?
1-Oedogonium
Classify and label Carteria
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Volvocales
G-Carteria

Did you get:
-one single vegetative cell
-flagella
-cell wall
-chloroplast
-eyespot
-pyrenoid
-starch plates
Classify Chlamydomonas
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Volvocales
G-Chlamydomonas

...Recall that dangblasted life cycle.. shit.....
Classify and label Volvox
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Volvocales
G-Volvox

Did you get:
-colony
-daughter colony
-vegetative cell
-mucilaginous sheath
-chloroplast
-cytoplasmic bridge
-flagella
-gonida ... maybe even plakea
Classify and label Scenedesmus
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Chlorococcales
G-Scenedesmus

Did you get:
-colony
-vegetative cell
-cell wall
-spine
-pyrenoid
-vacuole
-chloroplast
-nucleus
Classify Hydrodictyon
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Chlorococcales
G-Hyrdodictyon
Classify and label Microspora
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Sphaeropleales
G-Microspora

Did you get:
-filament
-vegetative cell
-cell wall
-chloroplast (reticulate)
-H pieces
Classify and label Stigeoclonium
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Chaetophthorales
G-Stigeoclonium

Did you get:
-filament
-branch
-vegetative cell
-explain heterotrichous
Classify and label Oedogonium
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
C-Chlorophyceae
O-Oedogoniales
G-Oedogonium

Did you get:
-cap cell
-filament
-vegetative cell
-reticulate chloroplast
-nucleus
-vacuole
-pyrenoid
-cell wall
-striations

-Macrandrous and Nannandrous life cycles
-antheridium
-antherozoid
-androsporangium
-androspore
-dwarf male filament
-oogonium
-ovum