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96 Cards in this Set

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The brain and spinal cord

Central nervous system

Nerves that rub up and down the length of the back transmit most messages between the body and brain

Spinal cord

Nerves branching out from spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system

The long thin cells of nerves tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain

Neurons

The gap that exists between individual nerve cells

Synapse

The part of the peripheral that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles

Somatic nervous system

The part of the peripheral that controls internal biological functions

Autonomic nervous system

Part of the brain located at the rear base of the skull that is involved in the basic processes of life

Hindbrain

The small part of the brain above the pons that intergrates sensory info and relays it upward

Midbrain

The part of the brain that covers the brains central core

Forebrain

The different regions into which the cerebral cortex is divided

Lobes

A machine used to-record the electro activity of large portions of the brain

Electroencephalograph


Eeg

An imaging technique used to study the brain to pinpoint injuries and brain deterioration

Computerized axial tomography


Cat

An imaging technique used to see which brain areas are being activated while performing tasks

Positron emission tomography


Pet

An imaging technique used to study brain structure and activity

Magnetic resonance imaging


Mri

The chemical communication system using hormones by which messages are sent through the bloodstream

Endocrine system

Chemical substances that carry messages through the body in blood

Hormones

The center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones

Pituitary gland

The genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring

Genetics

Twins who come from one fertililized egg, twins having the same hereditary

Identical twins

The basic building blocks of hereditary

Genes

Twins who come from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm

Fraternal twins

A state of awareness, including a persons feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions

Consciousness

Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement, high level of brain activity, deep relaxation od the muscles and dreaming

REM sleep

The rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day

Circadian rhythm

Failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day

Insomnia

Sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep

Sleep apnia

Condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling sleepy during the day

Narcolepsy

Unpleasant dreams

Nightmares

Sleep disruptions that occur during stage 4 of sleep involving screaming panic and confusion

Night terror

Walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep

Sleep walking

State of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility

Hypnosis

Suggestion made during hypnosis that influenses the participants behavior afterward

Posthypnotic suggestion

Process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled

Biofeedback

The focusing of attention to clear ones mind and produce relaxation

Meditation

Chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness

Psychoactive drugs

The dried leaves and flowers of indian hemp that produce an altered state of consciousness when smoked or ingested

Marijuana

Perceptions that have no direct external cause

Hallucinations

Drugs that often pruduce hallucinations

Hallucinogens

A potent psychedelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought

Lsd

A learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus

Classical conditioning

A stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of the unconditioned response

Neutral stimulus

An event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training

Unconditioned stimulus

An organisms automatic reaction to a stimulus

Unconditioned response

A once neautral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus

Conditioned stimulus

A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus

Conditioned response

Responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli

Generalization

The ability to respond differently to a similar but distinct stimuli

Discrimination

The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without unconditioned stimulus

Extinction

Stimilus or event that follows a response and increases the liklihood that the response will be repeated

Reinforcment

Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or pinished resulting in corresponding increases ir decreases in occurance

Opperant conditioning

Stimulus that is naturally rewarding such as food or water
Primary reinforcer
Stimulus that is money that becomes rewarding the woods link with the primary reinforcer
Secondary reinforcer
A pattern of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained
Fixed ratio schedule
A pattern of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained
Variable ratio schedule
A pattern of reinforcement in which specific amount of time must elapse before a respinse will elicit reinforcement

Fixed interval schedule

A pattern of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before response will obtain reinforcement
Variable interval schedule
Technique in which there’s a desired behavior is molded by first rewarding and act similar to that behavior and then requiring even closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward

Shaping

Learned reactions that follow one another in sequence each reaction producing the signal for the next

Response chain

Process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli
Aversive control
Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
Negative reinforcement
Training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
Escape conditioning
Training of an organism to with draw from or prevent an unpleasant stimulus before it starts
Avoidance conditioning
Process of altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others

Social learning

Form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation
Cognitive learning
A mental picture of spacial relationships or relationships between events
Cognitive map
Alteration of a behavioral tendencies that is not demonstrated by an immediate observable change in behavior
Latent learning
Condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable
Learned helplessness
Learned by imitating others and copying behavior
Modeling
Systematic application of learning principles to change peoples actions and feelings
Behavior modification
Conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with the old useless objects which can be accumulated in exchange for valued rewards
Token economy
The consistent eduring and unique characteristics of a person
Personality
The part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors

Unconscious

The part of the unconscious personality that contains our needs drives instincts and repressed material

Id

The part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the super ego in socially acceptable ways

Ego

The part of the personality that is the source of conscience and counteracts the socially undesirable impulses of the ID
Super ego
Certain specific means by which that you go unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances
Defense mechanisms
The part of the mind that contains inherited instincts and urges and memories common to all people
Collective unconscious
And inherited ideas based on the experiences of one’s ancestors which shape the perception of the world
Archetype


A pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source


Inferiority complex
Believe that the proper subject matter of psychology is objectively observable behavior and nothing else
Behaviorism
The occurrence of rewards or punishments following particular behaviors
Contingencies of reinforcement
school of psychology that emphasizes personal growth and that humans of maximum potential by each unique individual
Humanistic psychology
The humanist term for realizing ones unique potential
Self actualization
One’s experience or image of oneself developed through interaction with others

Self

Viewing oneself in a positive light due to positive feedback received from other interactions
Positive regard
The conditions a person must meet in order to record himself or herself positively
Conditions of worth
The perception that individuals or significant others value them for what they are which leads the individuals to grant them serve the same regard
Unconditional positive regard
An individual whose person and self coincide
Fully functioning
A tendency to react to a situation in a way that remains stable over time

Trait

A characteristic or feature that is so pervasive that the person is almost identified with it
Cardinal trait
A complex so statistical technique used to identify the underlying reasons variables are correlated
Factor analysis
A stable characteristic that can be observed in certain situations
Surface trait
THe stable characteristic that can be considered to be at the core of personality

Source trait

And out going active person who directs his or her energies and interest towards the people and things

Extravert

A reserved withdrawn person who is preoccupied with his or her inner thoughts and feelings

Introvert