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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
wellness
-satisfying your needs regarding mental and emotional stability, social consciousness and adaptability, spiritual and moral fiber, and physical health consistent with your heredity
Healthy People 2010
-set of health objectives for the nation to achieve over the first decade of new century
-health indicators:

physical activity
overweight/obesity
tobacco use
substance abuse
responsible sexual behavior
mental health
injury and violence
environmental quality
immunization
access to health care
health-related components
-concerned with development of qualities necessary to function efficiently physically and maintain a healthy lifestyle
-muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, body composition
cardiorespiratory endurance
-the ability to persist in a physical activity requiring oxygen for physical exertion without experiencing undue fatigue
muscular strength
-the ability or capacity of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against resistance
muscular endurance
-the ability of muscles to perform or sustain a muscle contraction repeatedly over a period of time
flexibility
-the ability to move your arms, legs, and trunk freely throughout a full, nonrestricted, pain-free range of motion
body composition
-the percentage of fat in the body relative to the percentage of all other tissue
atherosclerosis
-a process by which fatty plaques are deposited along arterial walls
caloric intake
-number of calories consumed in the diet
caloric expenditure
-number of calories expended through basal metabolism and exercise
skill-related components
-fitness components associated with athletic performance
-speed, power, coordination, balance, agility
speed
-ability to perform a particular movement very rapidly
-function of distance and time
power
-ability to generate great amounts of force against a certain resistance in a short period of time
neuromuscular coordination
-ability to integrate the senses with muscle function to produce smooth, accurate, and skilled movement
balance
-ability to maintain some degree of equilibrium while moving or standing still
agility
-ability to change or alter (quickly and accurately) the direction of body movement during activity
reaction time
-the length of time required to react to a stimulus
stress management
-involves techniques that attempt to reduce both the quantity and the quality of stress in your life
coronary artery disease
-results from accumulation of fatty deposits (atherosclerosis plaque) within coronary arteries
cancer
-a collection of abnormal cells that tends to invade and ultimately take over normal tissue
coping
-an attempt to effectively manage or control stress by using techniques that alter the physiological and psychological consequences of stress
relaxation techniques
-techniques for reducing tensions that could originate from muscular activity but are more likely to result from psychological responses to hectic lifestyles
lipoproteins
-a compound of fat and protein that carries cholesterol
hyperlipidemia
-an excessively high level of fat in the blood
stress
-the responses that occur in the body when the internal balance or equilibrium of the body systems is disrupted
drug abuse
-the use of drugs for non-medical reasons; that is, with the intent of getting "high"-altering mood or behavior
anabolic steroids
-organic cmpds that primarily contain sterols and sex hormones and are used for increasing lean body weight, muscle mass, and strength
alcoholism
-a disease in which a person is powerless to stop drining and drinking seriously alters his/her normal living pattern
tobacco use
-the use of cigarettes, cigars, pipes, or smokeless tobacco
overload
-exercising at a higher level than normal
SAID principle
-Special Adaptation to Imposed Demands
-when the body is subjected to stresses and overloads of varying intensities, it will gradually adapt, over time, to overcome whatever demands are placed on it
progression
-gradually increasing the level and intensity of exercise
consistency
-engaging in fitness activities on a frequent and regular basis
specificity
-the type of physical changes that occur are directly related to the type of training used
warm-up
-designed to increase body temp., stretch ligaments and muscles, and increase flexibility
cool-down
-prevents pooling of blood and enables the body to cool and return to a resting state
aerobic activity
-an activity in which the intensity of the activity is low enough that the cardiovascular system can supply enough oxygen to continue the activity for long periods
anaerobic activity
-an activity in which the intensity is so great that the demand for oxygen is greater than the body's ability to deliver oxygen
stroke volume
-volume of blood being pumped out of the heart with each beat
cardiac output
-indicates how much blood the heart is capable of pumping in exactly one minute
aerobic capacity
-the greatest rate at which oxygen can be taken in and used during exercise
maximum aerobic capacity
-measured in a lab to determine how much oxygen can be used during 1 min. of maximal exercise
fast-twitch muscle fibers
-a type of muscle fiber used for speed or power activities such as sprinting or weight lifting
slow-twitch muscle fibers
-resistant to fatigue and are more useful in long-term endurance activities
FITT principle
-an approach to exercise that takes into consideration Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type of activity
continuous training
-technique that uses exercises performed at the same level of intensity for long periods
target heart rate
-specific heart rate to be achieved and maintained during exercise
rating of perceived exertion
-technique used to subjectively rate exercise intensity on a numerical scale
-RPE
-scale from 6-20
interval training
-alternating periods of relatively intense work with periods of active recovery
fartlek
-type of workout that involves jogging at varying speeds over varying terrain
-"speed play"
-because pace and terrain always changing, the training session is less regimented and allows for an effective alternative in training routine
muscular strength
-ability of a muscle to generate force against some resistance
muscular endurance
-ability to perform repetitive muscular contractions against some resistance for an extended period of time
power
-large amount of force generated quickly
concentric contraction
-contraction where the muscle shortens when contracting
eccentric contraction
-muscle lengthens when contracting
hypertrophy
-an increase in muscle size in response to training
atrophy
-a decrease in muscle size caused by inactivity
motor unit
-a group of muscle fibers innervated by a single motor nerve
myofilaments
-small protein structures that are the contractile elements in a muscle fiber
progressive resistance exercise
-a technique that gradually strengthens muscles through a muscle contraction that overcomes some fixed resistance
isometric exercise
-an exercise in which the muscle contracts against resistance but doesn't change in length
isokinetic exercise
-the speed of mvt. is constant regardless of the strength of a contraction