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93 Cards in this Set

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pre-operational stage is from
2-7
the most obvious change in the pre-operationl stage is the increase in
representational or symbolic activity
the most flexible means of mental representation according to Piaget
language
when we think in words we overcome our momentary experiences and can deal with the
past, present, and future
Piaget beleived that language played a major part in cognitive development T or F
F
what leads to internal images of experince that children then label with words, according to Piaget
sensorimotor activity
what is another good example of mental representation during early childhood, it enables children to strengthen newly aquired representational schemes
make believe play
three important changes that reflect the preschool childs symbolic mastery
over, time play increasingly detaches itself from real life conditions associated with it, play becomes less self centered with age, and play gradually includes more complex scheme combinations
at what age do children pretend with less realistic toys?
after 2
children pretending to drink from a cup but refusing to drink from a hat are what age
younger than 2
when do children become detached particpants
early in the 3rd year
detached participant means that
children realize that agents of pretend actions can become independent themselves
when a child is pouring and drinking they are combining
schemes
at age 2 1/2 children combine schemes with those of peers in
sociodramatic play
children having a good understanding of role relationships and story lines is an example of
sociodramatic play
children believe that make believe play is a representational activity between the ages of
4-8
sammy plays war with his friends that are 4-8 years of age but he knows its not real. This shows that Sammy knows the game of war is just a
representational activity
you pretend to be an astronaut and you pretend to be a fireman sammy says. This shows he has begun to reason about
peoples mental activities
piaget described preschoolers in terms of what they can understand T or F
F
mental actions that obey logical rules according to piaget are
operations
the most serious deficiency of the preoperational stage according to Piaget is
egocentrism
failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others
egocentrism
piagets three mountain problem demonstrates
egocentrism
when children could not select a picture from the dolls viewpoint this was the what problem
three mountains
sammys firm insistance that someone had turned on the thunder shows his
egocentrism
the belief that inatimate objects have lifelike quailities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions
animistic thinking
animistic thinking happens in the
pre-operational stage
egocentric thinking happens in the
pre-operational stage
refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes
conservation
inability to conserve happens in what stage
pre-operational
at snacktime sammy poured all his raisins out on the table his friend tardo insisted he had more just because his was compacted in the baox is an example of
inability to conserve
focusing on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
centration
the most important illogical feature of pre-operational thought is
irreversibility
an inability to mentally go through a series of stepsi n a problem and then reverse direction returning to the starting point
irreversibility
reversibility is part of every logical operation T or F
T
a child focusing on the height of the water in the beaker and not anything else diplays
centration
I know sammy does not have more raisins than me, lets put them back in the box and compact them again says tardo, this is an example of
reversibility
the orginization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
Hierarchial classification
Piagets class inclusion problem measured
Hierarchial classification
children are shown 16 flowers 4 of which are blue and 12 are yellow. and they are aked are there more yellow flowers or flowers? This shows
Ability of Hierarchial classification
problems include to many things for children to focus on and have no experience with, they do not test their true ability is an example of
criticisms of Piaget's tests
when preschoolsers adapt their speech to fit the needs of their listeners shows
non-egocentrism
preschoolers would do better on tests if
they were given tasks that are relevant to their everyday lives
weight, liquid, mass, length, and number are all measures of
conservation
preschoolers can think logically T or F
T
playdough is to cut up as apple is to (cut up) is test of preschoolers
logical thought
preschools struggle to use logical thinking only if they are confronted with
too much information, or unfamiliar things
preschoolers cannt categorize T or F
F
"really and truly measured
appearance Vs. reality
at what age do children start to do well on appearance Vs. reality tests
6&7
how do children master appearance reality distinctions?
make believe play
age preschoolers show a dramatic increase in representational activity, as reflected in the development of language, make believe play and categorization
2-4
age preschoolers take the perspective of others in simplified, familiar situations and in everyday face to face communication
2-4
age preschoolers distinguish animate from inanimate, denies magic can alter everyday experiences
2-4
age preschoolers notice transformations, reverse thinking, and explain events logically in familiar contexts
2-4
age preschoolers categorize objects on the basis of common function not just appearance
2-4
age preschoolers sort familar objects into hierarchically organized categories
2-4
age pre-schoolers become increasingly aware that make believe and other thought processes are representational
4-7
replace magical beliefs about faries, goblins, and santa clause with plauseable explanations
4-7
age preschoolers show improved ability to distinguish appearance from reality
4-7
stage that spans years 2-7
preoperational
In a piagetian classroom, children are encouraged to discover for themselves throught spontaneous interaction with the environment art materials, puzzles, table games, building blocks measuring tools,dress up clothing this is called what type of learning
discovery learning
a piagetian classroom tries to speed up development T or F
F
a piagetian classroom does not try to speed up development instead learning experiences are built on a childs current thinking. Teachers watch and listen and introduce experiences that enable them to practice new schemes and challenge their own current thinking. this is called
sensitivity to childrens readiness to learn
teachers not imposing new skills is an example of
sensitivity to childrens readiness to learn
Piaget believed that children go through the same sequence of development but at diferent rates,therefore teachers must plan for activities that involve small groups rather than the whole class this is called
acceptance of individual differences
maybe the biggest criticism of piaget's educational styles is
that children learn mainly by acting on the environment
what theory focuses on language in development?
VSCT
preschoolers talk to themselves during puzzles and other tasks, Piaget called this
egocentric speech
according to Vygotsky children talk to themselves for
self-guidance
the verbal dialogues we carry out with ourselves whil thinking and actinfg on the environment
inner speech
now childrens self directed speech is called, thanks to Vgotsky
private speech
where does private speech come from?
The zone of proximal development
when talking about the zone of proximal development this is used to adjust the support offered during a teaching session to fit the childs current level of performance.
scaffolding
effecting scaffolding involves
withdrawing support and turning it over responsibility to the child
peer disagreement was emphasized by
Piaget
what is the difference in discovery when it comes to Piagetian and Vgotskian classrooms
Vygotskys promotes assisted discovery
what classroom would you find a group of classmates that is grouped together according different abilities in order to help eachother through assisted discovery
Vgotskian classroom
who promoted verbal communication in development
Vgotsky
What did Suzanne gaskins find out about the Mayan preschoolers that makes them different from ones in the western culture
They were very independent and helpful, they can sit for long periods of time without fussing, and they seldom display attention getting behaviors
how many items can a 2 year old recall? 4 year old?
2, 3-4
is recall easier to study in early childhood?
Yes
generating a mental image of an absent stimulus
recall
showing a child of set of ten toys then mixing them up with unfamiliar items and asking them to point to the ones in the original set measures
recognition
childrens recall is much poorer than their
recognition
deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering
memory strategies
young children are less effective at using these to remeber.
memory strategies
grouping items together is called
organizing
repeating items over and over again is
rehearsal
preschoolers do not show the beginnings of memory strategies T or F
F
prechoolers can rehearse and organize items into categories T or F
F
preschooler memory startegies consist of
arranging items in space
in the m&m's and wooden peg's in containers test the preschoolers used what mental strategy to find them to find them
arranging items in space