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32 Cards in this Set

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photosynthesis
chloroplasts capture ligh energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy stored in sugar and other organic molecules
autotrophs
"self-feeders" sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms
heterotrophs
live on compounds produced by other organisms
chloroplast
organelle. site of photosynthesis
chlorophyll
the pigment located in chloroplasts. light energy absorbed by chlorophyll drives synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast.
mesophyll
the tissue in the interior of the leaf where chloroplasts are found. Each cell ontains about 30-40 chloroplasts
stomata
microscopic pores where carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits leaves
stroma
the dense fluid within the chloroplast
thylakoids
elaborate system of interconnected membranous sacs called thylakoids that segregates the stroma from the thylakoid space.
thylakoid space
interior of thylakoids
grana
stacked columns of thylakoid sacs
light reactions
the photo part of photosynthesis. convert solar energy to chemical energy.
photophosphorylation
the addition of a phosphate group to ADP by chemiosmosis
carbon fixation
the initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds
wavelength
the distance between the crests of electromagnetic waves
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire range of radiation
visible light
the range of radiation from 400-700 that is detected as various colors by the human eye
spectrophotometer
directs beams of light of different wavelengths through a solution of the pigment and measures the fraction of the light transmitted at each wavelenth
why is visible light important in biological processes?
longer wavelengths don't have enough energy, they merely vibrate molecules; and shorter wavelengths have too much energy, they destroy molecules. Visible light excites electrons to higher energy states, and cells can harness that energy to do work.
our eyes are most sensitive to what color?
green
plants absorb...and don't use...
absorb blues and reds. don't use greens
overall reaction of photosynthesis
6 H2O + 6 CO2 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
water is carried to the leaves via tubular cells called
xylem
The oxygen released by photosynthesis comes from?
H2O. The oxygen in CO2 goes to glucose and to newly regenerated H2O.
What happens in the light reactions...?
Light energy is captured.
High energy nucleotides ATP and NADPH are formed.
Water is split.
-Electrons go to NADPH
-NADP is reduced to NADPH (a higher energy form)
-Oxygen is released as a byproduct.
What happens in the Calvin Cycle...? (and aka what?)
aka carbon fixation reactions
-ATP and NADPH give up their energy
-Energy is used to build glucose from CO2
Photosystems? where are they?
groups of Chlorphyll and accessory pigment molecules (chl.a and chl.b, carotenes) on the thylakoid membranes. clustered around one special molecule of chlorophyll a in the reaction center
PS II
reaction center contains a P680 - a chemical form of chlorophyll a that has a maximum light absorbance at 680 nm.
PS I
reaction center contains P700 - a chemical form of chlorophyll with maximum light absorbance of 700 nm.
Non-cyclic electron flow.
Generates what? Involves what?
most important pathway in light reactions. Generates both ATP and NADPH. Involves PSII and PSI.
Cyclic electron flow. Occurs when ? Involves what? What is formed?
Occurs at the same time as the non-cyclic pathway; involves only PSI. Only ATP formed.
G3P
Direct product of the Calvin Cycle. triose sugar. two molecules spontaneously unite to form Glucose.