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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organisms obtian nutrients from the environment ..called?
some nutrients gained by organisms can be..
carbs, proteiins, lipids, oxygen water, etc
organisms release energy from food in a controlled way
Chemical energy:
energy stored in chemical bonds of glucose, glycogen lipids, etc
free energy:
energy rapidly available to do work, which we keep on hand as ATP
stores energy in phosphate bonds (P)
usable form of energy
must be in constant supply
leftover wehne ATP bonds are broken and energy is released
when new energy is available, ATP is regormed from ADP and phosphate
in desperate situations cells will break a second phosphate bond
not as much energy
anabolism uses ATP to
synthesize molecules
ex: Photosynthesis --> glucose-->H20 c02
makes ATP during degradation
ex: to break dwon--> smaller products from larger reactions
cellular respiration is the most efficient way for
organisms to obtain energy stored in nutrients
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
C6 H12 O6 +6O2--> 6CO2 + 6H2O
where does glycolysis take place?
aerobic respiration requires..
anaerobic respiration
doesnt require oxygen, it is simpler thus produces less energy than aerobic
Glycolysis Step 1.
molecule of glucose broken into two
Glycolysis Step 2.
Net of 2 ATP formed
Glycolysis Step 3.
hydrogen available for electron transport
Glycolysis enters the cell and is converted into? and uses ___ ATP molecules
into the form needed for the reactions which uses 2 ATP molecules
The prepared 6-Carbon Molecule splits into two 3-C phosphates called...
PGAL is rearranged to form another 3 Carbon compound called
the end result of glycolysis is that ___ pyruvate are formed from each glucose molecule
Hydrogen ions and electrons are produced which which are carried away by NAD+ later producing
Oxygen lacking is also called?
fermentation produces
no further ATP, and regenerates NAD+ from NADH
pyruvate is converetd into
when oxygen is present, pyruvate is transported to the
pyruvate is broken up to produce
CO2 and acetate
the acetate produced gets picked up by Coenzyme A and together they form
Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA will then go to the
Krebs Cycle
another ___ is produced
the ___ of the mitochondria contains most of the enzymes for the Krebs Cycle
the ___ of the mitochondria contain enzymes for electron transport, ATP formation and the Krebs Cycle reactions
the mitochondria is the location of
the krebs cycle and electron transport
The Krebs Cycle is also called
the Citric Acid Cycle
Krebs Cycle starts where
glycolysis ends when oxygen is present, thus needs aerobic respiration
Krebs cycle technically starts after pyruvate turned into
acetyl CoA
the reactants of Krebs cycle there are 2 Acetyl CoA per
there are 2 Acetyl CoA per glucose molecule
8 NAD+ and 2 FAD
3 molecules of 02
recycled 4C compounds of oxalocalate
Products of Krebs Cycle
2 molecules of ATP
8 NADH and 2FADH2
6 molecules of C02
Electron Transport System is a component of what type of respiration?
electron transport produces the most
ATP than any of the other reactions
electron transport involves a series of electron carries called
cytochromes in the cristae of mitochondria
What are the 2 carrier molecules for the Electron Transport system called?
what do these two carriers do
bring electrons to the chain via hydrogen
hydrogen atoms are split into
protons and electrons
electrons are transfered along a series of substances releasing
energy at each step
protons diffuse down
the concentration gradient which triggers the conversion of ADP to ATP
the energy ultimately captured is in the form of
the total ATP produced is around
32-34 molecules
the final cytochrome:
recombines electrons with hydrogen ions
bonds hydrogen atoms to oxygen
(3O2 needed)
(6H20 needed)
when the krebs cycle is in non-carb metabolism and it is dealing with LIPIDS the only difference is that
fatty acids break dwon into acetyl CoA rather than pyruvate then it enters the krebs cycle as usual
with proteins
amino groups are detached from carbon skeletons , chains converted into acetate, then enters Krebs cycle
cells use glucose in bloodstream to make
if blood glucose levels are low,
stored glycogen is broken down
glucose is converted to
if excess glucose
the remainder is stored as fat
respiration and photosynthesis processes are
Equation for photosynthesis
in order to maximize photosynthesis leaves have (3 things)
wide blades
chloroplast streaming
individual pigment rotation
waxy coating to prevent water loss
water loss can be called :
pores for gas and water exchange
guard cells
surround and control stomate operations
middle section where photosynthesis takes place
spongy mesophyll
lower layer of middle, more loosley packed so Co2 can move through to upper layer
palisade mesophyll
upper layer which is more ightly packed chlorplasts move around cell in both
Transpiration is
evaporation of water from leaf (water getting out of leaf)
Transpiration is controlled by
guard cells
excess water in guard cells cause them to
swelling of guard cells
open stomata
Chloroplast Streaming is
chloroplasts circle in leaves to ensure equal access light and optimize photosynthesis
internal membrane system, flattened sacs
stack of thylakod membranes, maximize surface area for capturing sunlight
liquid solution around thylakoids, contains enzymes DNA RNA and ribosomes
3 different but most common types of chlorophyll are
Chlorophyll A & B, Xanthophylls, Carotenoids
bluish yellow
Light reactions are the absorbtion
of light energy
light reactions are the conversion of
light energy to chemical energy
Calvin Cycle is the
storage of chemical energy in sugars
calvin cycle reacion is
3CO2+3H20=>C3 H6 O3+3O2
light reactions take place in
Calvin Cycle takes place in
the stroma
groups of pigments collectivly are called
abosrb light energy from when the light hits the leaf
photosystem I and photosystem II but...
photosytem II really comes first because less nm
the energy from the light is used to
split water molecules
this process is called
the water is split into elemntal oxygen, hydrogen ions
protons, and free electrons
how is exchange regulated in the plant
6 molecules of water IN
3 molecules of oxygen OUT
energy is used to pump protons
into the thylakoid
gradient causes hydrogen ions to
diffuse out of membrane
hydrogen and eldctrons are carried to the next phase by
NADP, an electron acceptor, which makes NADPH
during this process what is produced?
The Calvin Cycle does not require
light energy directly
the Calvin cycle does require
prodcuts of light reactions
Calvin Cycle takes place in the
stroma of the chloroplast
the basic steps of the Calvin Cycle are (reaction)
CO2 + RuBP=> 2PGA
RuBP is a
recycled 5-C compound
C02 (1C) + a 5- Carbon compound is a
6- carbon sugar (not glucose)
the 6 carbon sugar ( with a lil help from an enzyme) splits into
3-carbon acids
The two 3-carbon acids are convrted into two 3-carbon sugars by the addition of hydrogen
THEN PGA is converted to PGAL, a 3-carbon sugar
the final end product is
__ out of every 12 PGAL created are used to regenerated RuBP
there ___5-C molecules
2 out of every 12 PGAL created are released from the Calvin cycle which can create
one molecule of glucose