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24 Cards in this Set

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Biochemical Pathway
A series of reactions where the product of one reaction is used in the next reaction
Thylakiods
Disk in a chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place
Grana
Stacks of thylakiod disks
Stroma
Fluid in the chloroplast that surrounds the thylakoids
- Where the calvin cycle takes place
Chlorophyll a
the main light harvesting pigment in photosyntheis
green color
Chlorophyll b
an accessory pigment that stores up light energy
green color
Carotenoids
An accessory pigment that stores up light energy, gives the plant different colors besides green
Accessory pigments
Pigments that store light energy
Stomata
The openings in leaves that take in H2O and CO2, and let out O2
C4 plants
Plants that change CO2 into 4-carbon compounds and store up the carbon to be used later in the calvin cycle
plants are usually in dry hot envirionments
CAM plants
Plants that change CO2 into a variety of carbon compounds and store up the carbon to be used later in the calvin cycle
plants are usually in dry hot envirionments
Step 1 of photosynthesis
Light excites electrons in photosystem II, electrons are moved to the electron transport chain, electrons in PSII are replaced by splitting water.
Step 2 of photosynthesis
electrons move down the electron transport chain and lose energy, this energy is used to pump protons inside the thylakoid disk
Step 3 of photosynthesis
Photosystem I absorbs light an excites electrons. The electrons from photosystem II replace the excited electrons in photosystem I
Step 4 of photosynthesis
Photosystem I sends excited electron to another electron transport chain and the energy from those electrons are used to make NADPH
Step 5 of photosynthesis
The protons that were pumped into the thylakoid are used by ATP Synthase to make ATP
Rates of photosynthesis affected by CO2 and water
as CO2, and H20 levels increase, the rate of photosynthesis increases until it levels off
Rates of photosynthesis affected by Temperature
as the temperature increases photosynthesis increases until a certain point then photosynthesis drops off
Step 1 of calvin cycle
CO2 combines with 5-carbon RuBP to make 2 PGA molecules
Step 2 of calvin cycle
PGA molecules combine with ATP and NADPH to make 2 PGAL molecules
Step 3 of calvin cycle
Most PGAL molecules combine with ATP to re-make RuBP, some is used to make sugar
What is the overall reaction for photosynthesis
CO2 + H2O + light = sugar + O2
Why do C4 and CAM plants need an alternative method for fixing carbon?
They are in dry and hot environments so they close their stomata to prevent water loss. Because of the closed stomata, they must store up Carbon to be used later
What are the two energy carring molecules that are made in photosynthesis and are used in the Calvin Cycle?
NADPH and ATP