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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Photosynthesis Equation
light + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
"Excited Electrons"
energized electrons due to the light on the pigments
process of making ATP from ADP + Pi using energy derived from light, Non cyclic starts with PS II
Photosystem II
First step of noncyclic photophosphorylation, electrons trapped by P680 in photosystem II are energized by light. There is an increse in their energy
Primary Electron Acceptor
2nd step in noncyclic photo..., two energized electrons are passed to this molecule. This electron is called "primary" because it is the first in a chain of electron acceptors
Electron Transport Chain
3rd step in noncyclic photo.. electrons pass through this which consists of proteins that pass electrons from one carrier protein to the next. Some carrier proteins, like ferredoxin and cytochrome, include nonprotein parts containing iron
Ferredoxin and Cytochrome
some of the carrier proteins in the electron transport chain whcin include nonprotein parts parts containing iron
4th step in noncyclic photo... as the two electrons move down the electon transport chain, they lose energy. The energy lost is used to phosphorylate, on average, about 1.5 ATP molecules
Photosystem I
5th step in noncyclic photo... gthe electron transport chain terminates with PS I (with P700). Here the electrons are again energized by sunlight and passed to a primary electron acceptor (different from the one associated with PS II)
6th step in noncyclic photo... the two electrons pass through a short electron transport chain, and at the end the two electrons combine with NADP+ and H+ to form NADPH. It is a coenzyme, and since the electrons have a considerable amount of energy left, NADPH is an energy-rich molecule
7th step in noncyclic photo.. the two electrons from PSII are now in NADPH. The loss of these two electrons is replaced when water splits into 2H+ and .5 O2. This literally means decomposition by light and a manganese-containing protein complex catalyzes the reaction. THe two electrons replace the lost electrons and one of the H+ provides the H in NADPH.
Light-Dependent Reactions equation
H2O+ADP+Pi+NADP+ +light -> ATP + NADPH + O2 +H+
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
A second photophos. sequence that occurs when electrons energized in PSI are "Recycled". In this, the energized electrons join with protein carriers and generate ATP as they pass along the electron transport chin. They do not create NADPH but rather the electrons return to PSI to be energized again. It is a primitive form of photosynthesis but occurs simultaneously with noncyclic photophos.
Calvin-Benson Cycle
"fixes" CO2 to create a single molecule of glucose, and it must repeat 6 times and use 6 CO2 molecules
6CO2 combine with 6RuBP to produce 12 PGA. The enzyne ReBP carboxylase, or rubisco, catalyzes the merging of CO2 and ribulose biphosphate. It is referred to as C2 photosynt. because the first product formed, Phosphoglycerate (PGA) contains three carbon atoms. It is also called the carbon reduction cycle
12 ATP and 12 NADPH are used to convert 12 PGA to 12 PGAL, the erngy is incorported into PGAL (glyceride 3-phosphate) thus making PGAL a very rich energy molecule. ADP, Pi, NADP+ are released and then re-energized in noncylcic photophos. ( calvin cycle)
6 ATP are used to convert 10 PGAL to 6 RuBP, allows the calvin cycle to repeat
Carbohydrate synthesis
last step of calvin cycle, the remaining two PGAL are used to build glucose and other monosaccarides.
light-independent/ dark reactions
another name of the calvin-benson cycle because no light is used, but it cannot occur in the dark because it is dependent upon the enrgy from ATP and NADPH whcih can be created only from light-dependent photophosphorylation
Calvin Cycle Equation
takes CO2 from atomosphere and energy in ATP and NADPH to create a glucose molecule
6CO2 +18 ATP +12 NADPH + H+ -> 18 ADP + 18 Pi + 12 NADP+ + 1 Glucose
the sites where both the light-dependent and light-independent reactons of photosynthesis occur
the fluid that is enclosed in the chloroplast's outside phospholipid bilayer membrane, enzymes are here for the Calvin Bension Cycle so this is where dark reactions occur
individual membrane layers (the pancakes) that are in suspended stacks in the chloroplast's stroma. WIthin it are light-absorbing pigments and enzymes for the light-dependent reactions. Light reactions occur on these membranes
Granum, Grana
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
Chemiosmotic Theory
describes the mechanism by which ADP is phosphorylated into ATP
First Step of the Chemiosmotic Theory
H+ ions (protons) accumulate inside thylakoids, photolysis creats H+'s inside the thylakoids and oxygen to the outside, and H+ accompanies the electrons as they pass along the electron chain between PSII and PSI, these protons come from the stroma and are released to the inside of the thylakoids
Second Step of the Chemiosmotic Theory
A pH and electrical gradient across the thylakoid membrane is created, as H+ accumalate inside the thylakoid, pH dereases. This creates a pH gradient where the stroma is an 8 and teh thylakoid is 5, so there is an electric gradient/coltage on the inside of the thylakoid
Third Step in the Chemiosmotic Theory
ATP syntases generate ATP, the pH and electrical grandient represent potential energy like water behind a dam. Channel proteins/ATP synthases, allow the H+ to pass through the thylakoid and out into the stroma, which generates energy for the ATP synthases to phosphorylate AFP to ATP. The passage of THREE H+'s i sneeded to make one ATP
Channel Proteins
ATP Synthases in the last step of the Chemiosmotic Theory
the most common protein found on earth
the biosynthetic pathway that leads to the fixation of oxygen, but it leads to two problems, first is that the CO@ fixing effiecienty is reduced because rubisco will fix O2 as well and that products formed from O2 do not create energy rich molecules.
specialized cellular oraganelles found near chloroplasts where they function to break down photorespiration produces
specialized cellular oraganelles found near chloroplasts where they function to break down photorespiration produces
C4 Photosynthesis
To improve photosynthetic efficiency, and instead of CO2 being fixed by rubisco, it combines with PEP to form OAA, then turns into malate, and is shuttled to the bundle sheath cells where they become pyruvate and CO2 which improves the efficiency.
phosphoenolpyruvate, the first thing CO2 combines with in C4 photosynthesis to form OAA
oxaloacetate or oxaloacetic acid, the first product of the C4 pathway, it is then converted to malate
PEP Carbolxylase
fixing enzyme of PEP and OAA in C4 photosynthesis
formed from OAA during C4 photosynthesis and is then shuttled to the bundle sheath cells where it is converted to pyruvate and CO2
Pyruvate and CO2
resultants of malate in the bundle sheath cells during C4 photosynthesis, and the pyruvate goes back to the mesophyll cell where one ATP braks into AMP to convert the pyruvate back into PEP. Then the process repeats
Efficieny of C4 photosynthesis
moving C02 to bundle sheath cells helps start the calvin-benson cycle, because little oxygen is present, rubisco can fix CO2 without competition from O2, so little photorespiration takes place, the stomate doesnt have to be open long so water doesnt escape, so they are found in hot, dry climates and sugarcane and crab grass are examples
CAM Photosynthesis
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, just like C4 photosynthesis but instead of malate, OAA is converted to malic acid, which is then shuttled to the VACUOLE of the cell. And stomata are open at night so malic acid accumalates, then the stomata are closed during the day (opposite) and malic acid is converted back to OAA, relaeasing CO2 for the calvin cycle
efficiency of CAM photosynthesis
photosynthesis can proceed during the day while stomate are closed, reducing water loss. This is found mostly in hot areas with cool nights, like deserts, and is found amoung the Crassulaceae family, and as well as CACTI