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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 characteristics of citation form
each word= single item, speech in isolation, no dialectical influences, maintain phonetic identity of word
4 characteristics casual form transcription
natural speech, continuous, dialects, phonetic identity may change
what is coarticulation?
overlapping of articulators
why coarticulate?
save time/ easier, maintain pace, natural sounding
what is assimilation? what causes it?
phonemes take on characteristics of neighboring sounds, actual phonemes change; result of coariculation
what are directions/ types of assimilation?
regressive (R to L); progressive
ellision (gimme)
epenthesis (bah-lue)
metathesis- pasghetti
vowel reduction (vowel to schwa; and to n)
contrast coarticulation and assimilation.
coar. causes assim.; (assim. results from coar.); assimilation= underlying sound change; coarticulation= underlying process explain why this can happen
compare coarticulation and assimilation
rate of speech; time efficiency of speech; ease of speech
anticipatory assimilation/ perseverative assimilation
regressive (r to l) = anti; progressive = perservative
common elision examples
t, th, th(v), d, v, t
common epenthesis
tense w/ t, lengths w/ k, am"p"sterdam, no-uhn (noon), ch j oose, soder (soda), (other schwas)
metathesis
"red" to erd, pro to per
suprasegmental speech aspects
stress, timing, tempo
stress (what, types)
primary, secondary, un
unstressed
if nucleus is syllabic, schwa, or schwar
content words
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs;usually stressed
function words
prep, pronouns, conjunctions; usually unstressed
3 reasons stress
1. level importance, 2. intent, 3. adding new info to conversation
intonation
modification of voice pitch
intonational phrase
change in fundamental frequency that spans length of a meaningful utterance (can have 3 in one sentence: "the boys, who ate the candy, got sick.")
falling intonational phrases
complete statements/ commands; indicate finality; neutral statements; wh- questions
rising intonational prases
yes/no questions; incomplete thoughts
tempo
determined by overall speech rate, duration of phonemes, pauses and junctures
average
5.5 syllables a second
duration of individual phonemes
diphthongs longest, then vowels, then consonants; open syllables longer; before vl (loose) shorter than before voiced (lose)
what to do with yes sam
:
juncture; types
way syllables linked in conversational speech; external- pause btwn intonational phrases; ( i wanted.... but); internal juncture- btwn words in same intonational phrase bc transition came be blurred (I scream; icecream)
phonemic context affects speech in four ways
indivi. phonemes, how phonemes affect syllable, syllabic structure (open vs closed); each phoneme one the others
longest consonant duration
glide; liquid
shortest consonant duration
stops
stressed syllables/ unstressed which is longer
stressed
vowels before voiced consonants longer/ shorter
LONGER
secondary stress verses unstressed
higher pitch; longer duration
function words
articles, pronouns, preps, conjunctions
intonation
modification of pitch
juncture
how syllables and words are linked in speech
falling intonation
wh- ?'s; declarative, unemotional statements, element of surprise statements
rising intonation
curious questions; emphatic questions; incomplete thoughts; lists
additional resources
strong v. weak table words pg 177; Review e and f of ch. 6- primary/ 2ndary stress w/ many syllables; progressive/ regressive assimilation
p/r; plural s pronounced as z after voiced phoneme
'dogz", "armz"
progressive (devoiced z); g and m influence s
p/r can make
regressive (becomes more like cam make); moves from alveolar to bilabial
p/r past tend -ed becoming t after vl phoneme; "walkt", shoppt
progressive; k and p voiceless influence d and make it t
p/r rounding for kw of quit
regressive; r to left; k is rounded in anticipation of w
juncture
how syllables and words are linked in speech
juncture
how syllables and words are linked in speech
falling intonation
wh- ?'s; declarative, unemotional statements, element of surprise statements
falling intonation
wh- ?'s; declarative, unemotional statements, element of surprise statements
rising intonation
curious questions; emphatic questions; incomplete thoughts; lists
rising intonation
curious questions; emphatic questions; incomplete thoughts; lists
additional resources
strong v. weak table words pg 177; Review e and f of ch. 6- primary/ 2ndary stress w/ many syllables; progressive/ regressive assimilation
additional resources
strong v. weak table words pg 177; Review e and f of ch. 6- primary/ 2ndary stress w/ many syllables; progressive/ regressive assimilation
p/r; plural s pronounced as z after voiced phoneme
'dogz", "armz"
progressive (devoiced z); g and m influence s
p/r; plural s pronounced as z after voiced phoneme
'dogz", "armz"
progressive (devoiced z); g and m influence s
p/r can make
regressive (becomes more like cam make); moves from alveolar to bilabial
p/r can make
regressive (becomes more like cam make); moves from alveolar to bilabial
p/r past tend -ed becoming t after vl phoneme; "walkt", shoppt
progressive; k and p voiceless influence d and make it t
p/r past tend -ed becoming t after vl phoneme; "walkt", shoppt
progressive; k and p voiceless influence d and make it t
p/r rounding for kw of quit
regressive; r to left; k is rounded in anticipation of w
p/r rounding for kw of quit
regressive; r to left; k is rounded in anticipation of w