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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is phonetics?
Phonetics is the study of speech emphasizing the description of speech sounds according to their production, transmission and perceptual features.
Phone
A phone is any particular occurrence of a sound segment that is used by a speaker saying words, regardless of whether the target language uses them.
Sound production
To examine how sounds are actually articulated, the physical structures that are used and the oral movements.
Transmission
To include specific characteristics relative to the frequency, intensity and and duration of a specific sound.
Perception
How speech sounds are recognized and distinguished from one another
Acoustic phonetics
Examines the physical properties of speech sounds as they are moving through the air.
Auditory or perceptual phonetics
The study of how sound waves are identified and perceived by the listener.
Pitch and loudness
Terms used in auditory phonetics
Frequency and intensity
Terms used in acoustic phonetics
Phoneme
The smallest linguistic unit that is able, when combined with other such u it's, to establish word mean gs and distinguish between them.
Minimal pairs
Words that differ in only one phoneme value. Bee/beet
Allophone
Variations of the phoneme used by various speakers in differing contexts. The variation will not change the the meaning of the word.
Free variation
Indicates two allophones of one phoneme that could be exchanged for one another in similar contexts.
Complementary distribution
Indicates the mutually exclusive relationships between two phonetically similar segments
Articulation disorder
Refers to difficulties with the motor production aspects of speech, or an inability to produce certain speech sounds
Glottis
Space between the vocal folds
.... Muscles surround the larynx and anchor it in it's position
Extrinsic
.....muscles are necessary for control during voice production.
Intrinsic
The two muscles that help to adduct?
Lateral cricoarytenoid and the interarytenoid
The only muscle that helps to abduct?
Posterior cricoarytenoid
The intrinsic muscles involved in elongating , thus tensing, the vocal folds?
The cricothyroid- the pars rectangle and pars oblique portions
Fundamental frequency
Average amount of glottal openings per second
Changes in vocal loudness can result from....
Variations in sub glottal air pressure, which varies the amplitude of the vocal folds' vibratory cycle.
Timbre
The tonal quality that differentiates two sounds of the same pitch, loudness, and duration. A characteristic vocal quality
Dorsum
The body of the tongue
Formant
A vocal tract resonance
Digraph
Combination of two letters representing one sound. Th, ph, sh
3 necessities must a phonetic transcription fulfill?
Accuracy, documentation, and communication
Cognates
Pairs of similar sounds. P/b, t/d
High vowels
Have the highest degree of tongue elevation
What are the three dimensions used to describe vowel articulation?
1. The tongues position relative to the palate, high, mid, low . 2. The anterior/posterior dimensions of the tongue, front, central and back. 3. Degree of lip rounding, rounding, unrounded, spread, retracted
Labial sounds
P, b, m,f,v,w, wh
Apical sounds
S,z, th (thin), th ( the), r, l
Coronal sounds
T, d,n,sh, j (beige)
Predorsal sounds
S, (soup) z (zip)
Mediodorsal sounds
Y (yes) r(rose)
Postdorsal sounds
K (cat) g(go) ng(sing)
Passive articulators
Labial, dental, alveolar, pre, medio, and post palatal, velar, glottal
Active articulators
Labial, apical, coronal, predorsum, mediodorsum, postdorsum
Tense vowels
Indicates tension of tongue and entire articulatory mechanism in vowel production=meet, late, fool,coat
Lax vowels
Indicates lack of tension in tongue and articulatory mechanism=MIT,let,full,caught
Open vowels
Distance of the tongue from palate=MIT, let,full, caught
Close vowels
Meet, late, fool, coat
Diphthong categorizatios
Phonemic, nonphonemic, rising, falling
Meet, mit
High front unrounded spread vowes
Hate, bet
Mid front, unrounded spread vowels
Allophonic variations of vowels
Nadalization , monopthongization,dipthongization, reduction
Fricatives
Result when active and passive articulators approximate each other so closely that the air is forcesd with considerable pressure through the constriction that is formed.
Slit friccative
Has a wider and flatter channel shape. Wide and narrow fricative
Sibilant fricatives
Have greater acoustic energy, s, z sh and j
Grooved channel fricative
The channel of airflow is extremely narrow. S, z
Fortis consonants
Stop-plosives that have more intraoral pressure (aspirated)
Lenis consonants
Unasprated stop-plosives
Affricate
Chug, jug. The stop-plosive and and fricative are articulated in one movement and are phonemically considered one unit.
Approximate
A manner of articulation refers o those consonants in which the articulators approximate but are not as close as a fricative.
Liquids
L and r, also approximates
Glides
W and j, also approximates
Continuants
Those sounds in which the primary constriction does not block the airflow. Vows, fricatives, nasals, and approximates
Semivowel approximate
W and j
Central approximate
R
Lateral approximant
L